New data on quarantine pests
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests.
New geographical records
A survey on fruit flies was carried out in south-west Nicaragua from June 1994 to March 1995, over and area of 350 km². No Bactrocera sp. was trapped. Ceratitis capitata (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was caught in high numbers at nearly all sites in the dry season, attacking coffee berries and Citrus fruits. Toxotrypana curvicauda was widespread throughout the year, attacking papaya. Ten species of Anastrepha were found, occurring mainly during the rainy season, but only two were trapped frequently and reared from collected fruit. Anastrepha obliqua (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) was the second most abundant fruit fly species and its preferred hosts were Mangifera indica, Spondias mombin and Psidium friedrichsthalianum. Anastrepha striata was also trapped and attacked P. friedrichsthalianum and P. guajava. The EPPO secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of A. obliqua and A. striata in Nicaragua. Review of Agricultural Entomology, 85(12), p1499 (11784).
Xiphinema rivesi (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was observed in an apple orchard in Swat, Pakistan. The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of this nematode in Pakistan. Nematological abstracts, 66(4), p 255 (1900).
Bemisia tabaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) and bean golden mosaic geminivirus (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) are present in Mato Grosso do Sul, in Brazil. Variations of disease incidence and vector population fluctuations were studied during 3 years. The highest disease incidence reached 70 % the first year, was less than 16 % the second year, and around 35 % the third year. It was observed that the whitefly populations reached a peak slightly before the disease reached its highest incidence. Review of Agricultural Entomology, 85(12), p 1486-87 (11680).
Ceratitis capitata (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) and Anastrepha fraterculus (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) are present in the Antinaco-Los Colorados valley, in the Province of La Rioja, in Argentina. Review of Agricultural Entomology, 86(1), p 74 (604).
Colletotrichum acutatum (EU Annex II/A2) was observed on strawberry in the state of Saõ Paulo in Brazil. Review of Plant Pathology, 76(12), p 1297 (9974).
During 1991-95, surveys were carried out in Slovenia on grapevine yellows on cultivars Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Limberger, grown in 14 locations in the 3 grapevine-growing regions. The percentage of infected vines differed according to the locations, ranging from 2 to 38 %. Preliminary results showed that the disease is caused by grapevine bois noir phytoplasma. Scaphoideus titanus, the vector of grapevine flavescence dorée (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was not found in these regions. Review of Plant Pathology, 77(1), p 81 (589).
Liriomyza trifolii (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) is present in Haryana, India on castor bean (Ricinus communis), and also on cotton, sunflower, cowpea, cucumber, celery, chrysanthemum, capsicum, rape and mustard (Brassica juncea). Review of Agricultural Entomology, 85(12), p 1504 (11820).
Premnotrypes vorax (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is considered as an important pest of Colombian potato crops. Studies are carried out on the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema sp.). Review of Agricultural Entomology, 86(1), p 85 (676).
Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) affecting potatoes has been found in Chile in the early 80s, in the Metropolitan region. The bacterium is now also present in soils of other regions and affects tomatoes. Review of Plant Pathology, 77(1), p 40 (295).
Severe symptoms of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) were recorded on capsicum in Dalmatia (Croatia) in summer 1995. This is the first report of this virus in this region of Croatia. Review of Plant Pathology, 76(12), p 1287 (9890).
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) is present in the Buenos Aires province in Argentina. During studies done between 1990 and 1994 in this region, the disease had a moderate to low intensity on European plums (Prunus domestica) and peaches (P. persica), but Japanese plums (P. salicina) were severely attacked (with the exception of one cultivar ‘Soledad’). Review of Plant Pathology, 76(12), p 1295 (9955).
EPPO Secretariat, 1998-01.