Nematodes in Argentina
A review on the nematode species present in Argentina has recently been published and give details on plant-parasitic and entomopathogenic nematodes.
Ditylenchus dipsaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
In the past, this species has mainly created problems on lucerne and garlic. It was first reported in the north-west of the country associated with damage on alfalfa, in 1929. But at present, with the use of resistant cultivars for lucerne and the production of nematode-free seeds for garlic, serious losses are no longer observed. D. dipsaci has a wide host range in Argentina, it has been reported in pastures, wheat, ornamentals, cotton, forest trees and weeds.
Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
It was first reported in Argentina in the soil of a garlic field in the western part of the country, in 1956. It was later found in the Andes, in the Province of Jujuy on wild potatoes (1960, 1961). In 1967, it was reported again in the soil of a potato field in another mountain region in the west of Argentina. However, since these old records, many analyses carried out by different laboratories on large numbers of soil samples and tubers from many different regions have failed to detect G. rostochiensis. It is currently felt that G. rostochiensis is not present in Argentina.
Nacobbus aberrans (EPPO A1 quarantine pest)
The genus Nacobbus was first found in the mountain region of the Province of Tucumán (altitude of 2000 m) associated with potato, Cucurbita maxima, Beta spp. and some weeds. Analysis of morphological ;characteristics of various populations of Nacobbus from Argentina showed that they all belong to the species N. aberrans. However, the observation of important differences between populations suggest the existence of a complex within the species N. aberrans. This nematode is widely distributed in the country, and can be associated with a large number of plants such as potatoes, vegetables and weeds. However, the main problem caused by this nematode is on potato.
Xiphinema americanum sensu lato (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
It is the most frequently found Xiphinema species in Argentina. It is widespread in the country and can be observed on many crops: tobacco, citrus, sugar cane, grapevine, barley, tomato and several fruit trees. However, it is not known whether the populations present in Argentina can transmit pathogenic viruses.
Other nematodes species reported as present in Argentina are: Meloidogyne chitwoodi (EPPO A2 quarantine pest), Radopholus similis* (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) and Xiphinema rivesi* (EPPO A2 quarantine pest).
* New geographical records.
Doucet, M.E.; de Doucet, M.M.A. (1997) Nematodes and agriculture in continental Argentina. An overview.
Fundamental and applied Nematology, 20(6), 521-539.