EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 10 - 1999 Num. article: 1999/163

Addition to the EPPO Alert List: some Pinus pests and diseases from Far East Asia


In the EU phytosanitary regulations, derogations can be granted for specific plants and origins, usually for a limited period of time. In a derogation concerning the import of plants of Chamaecyparis, Juniperus and Pinus from Japan, particular requirements (i.e. consignment freedom) were made for several pests and diseases. Most of them were already listed quarantine pests, but for Pinus, the following were also mentioned: Coleosporium paederiae, Coleosporium phellodendri, Dendrolimus spectabilis and Thecodiplosis japonensis. The EPPO Secretariat tried to gather some preliminary data on these pests and diseases, mainly from abstracts as most of the literature is in Japanese or Korean. No data could be found on Coleosporium paederiae (pine rust). But for Coleosporium phellodendri, Dendrolimus spectabilis and Thecodiplosis japonensis it was felt that they could be added to the EPPO Alert List.

Coleosporium phellodendri - Pine needle rust
Why
Coleosporium phellodendri came to our attention because it appeared in a list of harmful organisms in the EU derogation (93/452/EEC of 15 July 1993) concerning Pinus plants from Japan.
Where
China (Manchurian forest), Japan, Korea Republic
On which plants
Pinus spp. It is an autoecious pine rust. It can attack P. densiflora, P. amurense (no data on other Pinus).
Damage
Outbreaks are reported in Japan, but data is lacking on damage and biology. Probably growth reduction (mortality ?).
Pathway
Plants for planting of Pinus, cut branches.
Possible risks
Pinus are important forest trees in the EPPO region. Only preliminary data was gathered and information is missing on disease severity and extent in Asian forests and on the biology of the pathogen.
EPPO RS 99/163

Source(s) : Hama, T. (1972) [Needle rust of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. caused by Coleosporium phellodendri Komatov in Kiso Valley, Nagano.] Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station no. 247, 1-13.
Hama, T. (1987) [Studies on the important rust diseases of some conifers in the central mountainous region of Japan.] Bulletin of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, no. 343, 1-118.
The New York Botanical Garden on INTERNET. http://www.nybg.org/bsci/hcol/rust/melam_1Page2.html
Panel review date 1999

Entry date 1999-10

Dendrolimus spectabilis (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) - Pine moth
Why
Dendrolimus spectabilis came to our attention because it appeared in a list of harmful organisms in the EU derogation (93/452/EEC of 15 July 1993) concerning Pinus plants from Japan.
Where
China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong), Japan (Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu), Korea Republic (no data for north Korea).
On which plants
Pinus spp. Mainly P. densiflora and P. thunbergii. It can also feed on other pine species, e.g. P. strobus, P. taeda, P. tabulaeformis.
Damage
D. spectabilitis is a defoliator feeding on pine needles. First-instar larvae prefer needles of the current year, but final instar larvae prefer one-year-old needles. Severe defoliation has an impact on the growth of the pine trees. Tree mortality is apparently not observed (?). In the northern part of Japan it has one generation per year, but in the southern part, it has a complex life cycle as adults emerge once or twice a year alternatively. More data is needed on the biology of the pest.
Pathway
Plants for planting of Pinus, cut branches.
Possible risks
D. spectabilis is considered as a very serious defoliator of pine forests in countries where it occurs. However, more data is needed on actual losses caused by defoliation. Many studies are done on control methods (e.g. application of insect growth regulators), and particularly on biological control methods (polyhedrosis virus, Bacillus thuringiensis, predators and parasitoids), but there is little indication of their effectiveness. Pines are important forest trees in the EPPO region.

EPPO RS 99/163

Source(s) : Bin-Cheng Zhang (1994) Index of economically important Lepidoptera, CABI, Wallingford, UK, 599 pp.
Furuno, T. (1972) [Primary consumption by leaf-eating insects in loblolly pine canopies. Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forests], no. 44, 20-37.
Habu, N. (1976) [Geographic variation of the pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)] Japanese journal of applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(2), 55-60.
Kuranaga, Z.; Varley, G.C.; Gradwell, G.R. (1975) The population dynamics of the pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler, in Kyushu.] Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 57(6), 176-183.
Li, Z.Y.; Chen, H.S.; Cong, X.Y.; Han, Y.S.; Qiao, X.R. (1998) [Study on the regrowth ability of Pinus tabulaeformis after damage by the pine caterpillar.] Forest Research, 11(4), 424-427.
Satomi, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Takada, N.; Furuta, K. (1997) [Effects of defoliation caused by an outbreak of Dendrolimus spectabilis on the growth of mature Pinus strobus in Hokkaido.] Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society, 79(1), 9-13.
Togashi, K.; Takahashi, F. (1977) [Coadaptative preferential feeding of the pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), on the old needles of Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii Parl. Kontyu, 45(3), 399-414.
Panel review date 1999

Entry date 1999-10

Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) - Pine needle gall midge
Why
Thecodiplosis japonensis came to our attention because it appeared in a list of harmful organisms in the EU derogation (93/452/EEC of 15 July 1993) concerning Pinus plants from Japan.
Where
Japan, Korea Republic (including Cheju island), probably also in Korea Democratic People's Republic. T. japonensis was first described as a new species in Japan in 1955. In Korea, it was first observed in Seoul and Muan in 1929. Its distribution gradually expanded, and it is now distributed throughout the country. In 1990, it was first found on Cheju island. In 1995, approximately 212.000 ha of P. densiflora and P. thunbergii were infested.
On which plants
Pinus spp., mainly P. densiflora, P. thunbergii. In resistance tests: no eggs were laid on P. koraiensis and P. strobus needles, P. virginiana, P. taeda, P. rigida and P. banksiana did not show galls. But P. sylvestris, P. nigra, P. resinosa, P. contorta and P. ponderosa could be attacked.
Damage
In spring, emerging females lay eggs on developing needles. After hatching, young larvae crawl down to the leaf sheath and feed by sucking sap which induces the formation of galls. Large number of galls cause premature defoliation, resulting in simultaneous retardation in both terminal and cambial growth of the tree. T. japonensis overwinters in the soil where almost all larvae spin their cocoon. Adults can fly and be dispersed by the wind. Heavy attacks cause growth reduction. Tree mortality was observed in Japan and Korea. It is reported that in some years, 7000-8000 ha of attacked trees had to be cut.
Note
It can be noted that in Europe, there is a similar species, T. brachyptera attacking mainly P. sylvestris, but which causes less damage (no tree mortality reported).
Pathway
Plants for planting, cut branches of Pinus spp. Soil.
Possible risks
T. japonicus is considered as one of the most destructive insect pests of pines, especially in Korea. Pines are important forest trees in the EPPO region. However, more data would be needed on the biology of the pest, particularly on its climatic requirements. Control measures (chemical or biological) are available. But more data is needed on their efficacy and they may be difficult to apply in practice for economic or environmental reasons.
EPPO RS 99/163

Source(s) : Kim, K.S.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, S.K. (1987) [Resistance test of 13 pine species and race identification for the pine gall midge.] Research Report of the Institute of Forest Genetics, no. 23, 34-37.
Lee, B.Y.; Chung, Y.J.; Park, K.N.; Byun, B.H.; Bae, W.I. (1997) [Distribution of the pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), infestations in Korea: a brief history.] FRI Journal of Forest Science, no. 56, 13-20.
Lee, BY. (1994) Ecological characteristics of the local pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis, population in Cheju Island. Research Reports of the Forestry Research Institute Seoul, no. 49, 65-72.
Lee, S.G.; Kim, S.I.; Ahn, Y.J.; Kim, J.B.; Lee, B.Y. (1997) Effectiveness of carvacrol derived from Thujopsis dolabrata var hondai sawdust against Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Pesticide Science, 49(2), 119-124.
Skuhravy, V. (1994) On the differences between Thecodiplosis brachyptera Schwäg. and Thecodiplosis japonensis Uch. et In. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on the genus Pinus. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 67(7), 156-160.
A picture can be viewed on INTERNET http://www.best5.net/animal/

Panel review date        1999

Entry date 1999-10


Sources

Commission Decision 93/452/EEC of 15 July 1993 authorizing the Member States to provide for derogations from certain provisions of Council Directive 77/93EEC, in respect of plants of Chamaecyparis Spach, Juniperus L. and Pinus L., respectively, originating in Japan.