Situation of Ciborinia camelliae in Western Europe
Ciborinia camelliae (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is the causal agent of camellia flower blight. This fungal pathogen originating from Japan was introduced in the 1930s into USA and in 1993 into New Zealand. Recently, it was reported from Spain and UK. It was intercepted by Germany on Camellia plants imported from Italy and Switzerland (EPPO RS 99/164) and its presence was also suggested in other EU countries. The EPPO Secretariat has tried to check the present situation with the EU countries and Switzerland.
Denmark: C. camelliae has not been found in Denmark.
Finland: C. camelliae has not been found in Finland.
France: Recent surveys carried out in France have showed the presence of C. camelliae. Symptoms were observed on camellia flowers in regions of Bretagne and Pays de Loire. Samples were taken and five positive results were obtained. Infected plants were found in public or private gardens. More intensive surveys will be carried out in these regions to determine the extent of the disease.
Germany: In April 1999, the local Plant Protection Service of Saarland was informed by an amateur that Camellia plants obtained during a trip in Switzerland and Italy were infected by C. camelliae. These plants were taken by the Plant Protection Service, notified as interceptions (see EPPO RS 99/164) and are now under phytosanitary control. Further inquiries have been made by the NPPO of Germany on the possible occurrence of the disease in other parts of the country, but no further cases have been reported.
Portugal: During field surveys done in Portugal, no C. camelliae was detected so far.
Spain: C. camelliae was detected in the Comunidad Autóma de Galicia. Intensive surveys are being carried out in ornamental nurseries, parks and gardens to determine the extent of the disease. Studies are also being done on possible eradication measures.
Switzerland: In April 1999, Germany intercepted one consignment of Camellia plants from Switzerland infected by C. camelliae (see above). These plants had been grown in one specialized firm, producing and exporting Camellia plants, located in Ticino. Following this finding, the NPPO of Switzerland has immediately initiated surveys to determine the extent of the disease. Measures have been taken to prevent further spread, and in particular the firm concerned is no longer allowed to export plants.
United Kingdom: In spring 1999, inspections were carried out at 186 different premises. The presence of C. camelliae was confirmed at 5 premises in the south and south west of England. It appears that the disease might have been present at these sites for some time. It is noted that the NPPO of UK has requested a reconsideration within the EU of the status of Camellia flower blight. Meanwhile, measures have been taken to prevent spread of the disease from the infected sites.
No information is yet available on the situation in other EU countries.
Further reading on Internet:
On-line guide to plant disease control - Oregon State University Department of Botany and Plant Pathology (disease management) :
University of California Pest Management guidelines (disease management) :
Plant Protection Department of Massey University in New Zealand
Camellia flower blight - Life history and control by T.M. Stewart :
Flower blight - A new disease of Camellias in NZ by T.M. Stewart and H. Neilson :
Research on Camellia flower blight in New Zealand by P.G. Long and C Taylor :
Mansilla Vázquez, J.P.; Pintos Varela, C.; Salinero Corral, C. (1999) Detección en España de Ciborinia camelliae Kohn.
Phytoma España, no. 109, 24-27.
Web site "kamelien.de" from Prof. Dr. Klaus Peper (in German)
NPPOs of Denmark, 1999-07; Finland, 1999-08; France, 1999-10; ;Germany, 1999-08; Portugal, 1999-08; Spain, 1999-07; Switzerland, 1999-07; UK, 1999-06.