First report of rust on daisy (Bellis perennis) in Italy
In autumn 1996, a severe outbreak of rust was observed on daisies (Bellis perennis) in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. The causal agent was identified as Puccinia lagenophorae. This is the first report of a rust on Bellis perennis in Italy. By using artificial inoculation of aeciospores, all tested B. perennis cultivars were found susceptible to the disease, and the most susceptible were cvs: Tasso rosa, Tasso bianco, Tasso rosso, Ruby bianco. In chemical control trials, it was showed that the following fungicides gave good control of the disease, both as preventive and curative treatments: azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, bitertanol and triforine. In this paper, it is also reported, based on data from Scholler (1997), that other outbreaks of P. lagenophorae on B. perennis occurred recently in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.
Note: it can be recalled that a very similar rust disease has been found in UK on Bellis perennis (EPPO RS 98/131), but it was attributed to another species Puccinia distincta, originating from Australia. However, the taxonomy of these rusts appears rather complex. Weber et al. (1998) have compared P. distincta with other rusts recorded on daisies in UK: P. obscura and P. lagenophorae. P. obscura is a heteroecious rust (alternate host: Luzula spp.) well-known in UK. P. lagenophorae is a common rust of Senecio vulgaris, native of Australia and found in Europe in 1960. Previous reports noted that it could be inoculated successfully onto several members of the Asteraceae including B. perennis, and consequently P. distincta was at that time considered as a synonym of P. lagenophorae. However, Weber et al. (1998) have repeatedly failed to inoculate wild and cultivated daisies with aeciospores of P. lagenophorae from S. vulgaris (and vice versa). In addition, differences in teliospore morphology between P. distincta and P. lagenophorae led to the conclusion that P. distincta was distinct from P. lagenophorae. As P. distincta has the same aecial host as P. obscura (i.e. daisies but P. distincta cannot be inoculated to Luzula), and their teliospores are morphologically very similar, Weber et al. felt that P. distincta may derive from P. obscura.
Gullino, M.L.; Bertetti, D.; Luongo, I.; Arbusti, M.; Garibaldi, A. (1999) [Rust on common daisy (Bellis perennis): appearance in Italy and chemical control trials.]
Informatore fitopatologico no.1/2, 52-55.
Scholler, M. (1997) Rust fungi on Bellis perennis in Central Europe: delimitation and distribution.
Sydowia, 49, 174-181.
Weber, R.W.S.; Webster, J.; Al-Gharabally, D.H. (1998) Puccinia distincta, cause of the current daisy rust epidemic in Britain, in comparison with other rusts recorded on daisies, P. obscura and P. lagenophorae.
Mycological Research, 102(10), 1227-1232.