New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. During a survey carried out in August 2013, the pest was found along all coastal areas of Northeastern Tunisia (Ariana, Bizerte, Ben Arous, Nabeul, Sousse and Tunis governorates). Eucalyptus trees, in particular Eucalyptus camaldulensis, were found to be highly infested (Ben Attia and Rapisarda, 2014). Present, first found in August 2013 along all coastal areas of Northeastern Tunisia.
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in South Africa. It was first found in 2012 on street and ornamental eucalyptus trees near Pretoria and in Gauteng province. It was then found in eucalyptus plantations (Mpumalanga, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces) (Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, 2013). Present, first found in 2012 near Pretoria and then in several provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga).
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Colombia. It was first found in March 2012 in the municipality of Jerico (Antioquia department) (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, 2013). Present locally, under official control.
During a study carried out in several Mediterranean countries, the presence of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) has been detected in Algeria (near Algiers) and in Greece (Peloponnese). No damage was reported (Reguia and Peris-Felipo, 2013). Present, no details.
In Spain, unusual symptoms (interveinal leaf mottling and yellowing, brittleness) were observed in September 2011 in commercial greenhouses of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Granada and Almeria provinces (Andalucía). Diseased plants were all observed in glasshouses which were infested by Bemisia tabaci. The presence of Lettuce chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, LCV – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected in diseased bean plants. Previously, this virus had only been recorded in California (US) infecting lettuce but not beans. Interestingly, the Spanish strain isolated from beans was not able to infect lettuce (Ruiz et al., 2014).
Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from the Dominican Republic. In spring 2013, PSTVd caused a severe disease outbreak in one tomato field. The origin of this infection is unknown (Ling et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2013 in 1 tomato field.
The occurrence of maize redness (EPPO Alert List), associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, has been confirmed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From 2010 to 2012, symptoms of reddening followed by desiccation of the whole plant were frequently observed in maize fields in the Semberija region (Northeastern part of the country), causing significant economic losses. Recent studies confirmed the presence of ‘Ca. P. solani’ in diseased maize plants as well as in asymptomatic plants of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and the insect vector, Reptalus panzeri (Kovačević et al., 2014). Present, frequently observed in maize fields since 2010 in the Semberija region.
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Mexico in 2012. It was identified in root samples collected at Riachuelos (Veracruz state) from watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus cv. ‘Sunsugar’) showing yellowing, stunting and root galls (Ramírez-Suárez et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2012 in Veracruz state infecting Citrullus lanatus.
- Detailed records
Downy mildew of impatiens (Plasmopara obducens – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in continental USA in 2004. In 2011 and 2012, it caused severe and widespread outbreaks across continental USA, resulting in considerable economic losses. In 2013, the disease was also found throughout the Hawai’ian Islands (Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Hawai’i) (Crouch et al., 2014).
In July 2013, Ditylenchus dipsaci (EPPO A2 List) was detected in garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs sent by a grower in Lorain county in Ohio (US) for analysis. This is the first time that D. dipsaci is reported from Ohio (Testen et al., 2014).
In Canada, Heterodera glycines (EPPO A2 List) was reported for the first time from Québec in 2014. It was previously only known to occur in Ontario. Second stage juveniles (J2) and cysts were found in St. Anicet in a 10 ha soybean field, close to the border with Ontario (Mimee et al., 2014).
Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cidadellidae, vector of flavescence dorée), was caught for the first time in 2013 in Puglia (Italy). In this region, surveys have showed that at present only ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ is associated with grapevine yellows, but the presence of S. titanus is a threat to grapevine production in Southern Italy (Digiaro et al., 2014).
- New host plants
During intensive surveys carried out in France on Dothistroma needle blight (associated with Dothistoma septosporum and D. pini), the presence of D. pini was detected on Pinus radiata in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques departement (Piou et al., 2014).
In Tunisia, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Begomovirus, both EPPO A2 List) have been detected in Solanum elaeagnifolium (EPPO A2 List). This may suggest that, in addition to being an invasive weed, S. elaegnifolium could act as a reservoir for tomato yellow leaf curl diseases (Zammouri ; Mnari-Hattab, 2014).
A padlock-probe-based assay has been developed to simultaneously detect Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (both EPPO A1 List) in rice seeds (Tian et al., 2014).
Real-time PCR tests have been developed in the Netherlands for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis and S. litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – A1/A2 Lists). The new tests were found to be suitable for routine identification of all life stages of these four Spodoptera species (van de Vossenberg ; van der Straten, 2014).
Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO A2 List) had already been shown to be transmitted by unconventional modes through interactions with insects (Macrolophus caliginosus and bumble bees), fungus (Olpidium virulentus) and hydroponic systems in glasshouses. Recent studies have shown that the whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, could also transmit the virus from tomato to tomato, although with a low efficiency (Noël et al., 2014).
Studies conducted in Serbia have confirmed that Reptalus panzeri (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is a vector of bois noir (grapevine yellows associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ – EPPO A2 List) (Cvrković et al., 2014).
Ben Attia S, Rapisarda C (2014) First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), in Tunisia. Phytoparasitica 42(4), 535-539.
Crouch JA, Ko MP, McKemy JM (2014) F irst report of Impatiens downy mildew outbreaks caused by Plasmopara obducens throughout the Hawai’ian Islands. Plant Disease 98(5), p 696.
Cvrković T, Jović J, Mitrović M, Krstić O, Toševski I (2014) Experimental and molecular evidence of Reptalus panzeri as a natural vector of bois noir. Plant Pathology 63(1), 42-53.
Digiaro M, Elbeaino T, Valentini F, Cornara D, Percoco A, Guario A, Porcelli F (2014) First record in Apulia of Scaphoideus titanus, the vector of flavescence dorée. Journal of Plant Pathology 96(2), p 439.
-Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. Sistema de Alerta Fitosanitaria (2013-05-14) Reporte de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore en el Departamento de Antioquia. http://www.ica.gov.co/Alertas-Fitosanitarias/Notificacion-Oficial/Detalle-Notificacion-Oficial/Deteccion-de-Glycaspis-brimblecombei-Moore-en-el-D.aspx
-Foresty and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute. Pest Alert: Glycaspis brimblecombei - red gum lerp psyllid. http://src.fabinet.up.ac.za/tpcp/pdf/Glycaspis_Pest_Alert_update.pdf
Kovačević M, Ðurić Z, Jović J, Perković G, Lolić B, Hrnčić S, Toševski I, Delić D (2014) First report of stolbur phytoplasma associated with maize redness disease of maize in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease 98(3), p 418.
Ling KS, Li R, Groth-Helms D, Assis-Filho FM (2014) First report of Potato spindle tuber viroid naturally infecting field tomatoes in the Dominican Republic. Plant Disease 98(5), p 701.
Mimee B, Peng H, Popovic V, Yu Q, Duceppe MO, Tétreault MP, Belair G (2014) First report of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) on soybean in the province of Quebec, Canada. Plant Disease 98(3), p 429.
Nöel P, Hance T, Bragard C (2014) Transmission of the Pepino mosaic virus by whitefly. European Journal of Plant Pathology 138(1), 23-27.
Piou D, Ioos R (2014) First report of Dothistroma pini, a recent agent of the Dothistroma needle blight, on Pinus radiata in France. Plant Disease 98(6), 841-842.
Ramírez-Suárez A, Rosas-Hernández L, Alcasio-Rangel S, Powers TO (2014) First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii parasitizing watermelon from Veracruz, Mexico. Plant Disease 98(3), 428-429.
Reguia K, Peris-Felipo FJ (2013) Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera Psyllidae) invasion and new records in the Mediterranean area. Biodiversity Journal 4(4), 501-506.
Ruiz ML, Simón A, García MC, Janssen D (2014) First report of Lettuce chlorosis virus infecting bean in Spain. Plant Disease 98(6), p 857.
Testen AL, Walsh EK, Taylor CG, Miller SA, Lopez-Nicora HD (2014) First report of bloat nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) infecting garlic in Ohio. Plant Disease 98(6), 859-860.
Tian Y, Zhao Y, Xu R, Liu F, Hu B, Walcott RR (2014) Simultaneous detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in rice seed using a padlock-probe-based assay. Phytopathology 104(10), 1130-1137.
Van de Vossenberg BTLH, van der Straten MJ (2014) Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea). Journal of Economic Entomology 107(4), 1643-1654.
Zammouri S, Mnari-Hattab M (2014) First report of Solanum elaeagnifolium as natural host of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus species (TYLCV and TYLCSV) in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology 96(2), 431-439.