New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (formerly EPPO A2 List) are reported for the first time from Montenegro. These viruses were detected during surveys conducted in September/October in 2011 and 2012 in peach orchards (Zindović et al., 2014). Present, no details.
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in Réunion (FR) in April 2013 in the area of Bois de nèfles, near Saint-Denis (FDGDON Réunion, 2014). Present, no details.
Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in Réunion (FR) in November 2013 near Grand Tampon. The presence of the pest is also suspected in strawberry crops in the areas of Montvert les hauts, Bois court and Sainte Marie (FDGDON Réunion, 2014). Present, no details.
During surveys conducted in September 2013 in vineyards of the Khaketi region, Georgia, the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (associated with Bois noir) was detected in plants showing symptoms of grapevine yellows. This is the first time that Bois noir is reported from Georgia. Further studies will be conducted to verify the presence of its insect vector, i.e. Hyalesthes obsoletus (Quaglino et al., 2014). Present, no details.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus, TYLCV – EPPO A2) has been detected in the Republic of Korea infecting glasshouse Eustoma grandiflorum. The disease was observed in December 2012 on eustoma plants grown in Gumi, where earlier TYLCV outbreaks had been detected on tomatoes (Kil et al., 2014). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
Plasmopara obducens (formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Alabama (US). In spring 2012, downy mildew was first observed in potted plants of Impatiens walleriana in several commercial greenhouses in Mobile county (Conner et al., 2014).
Aphelenchoides besseyi (EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from the province of Jilin, China. During a survey on rice diseases conducted in 2013, it was found causing white tip disease near the cities of Changchun and Gongzhuling (Ou et al., 2014).
- New host plants
In 2012, an unusual syndrome was observed in Lleida, Northern Spain in peach (Prunus persica) orchards. Affected trees showed early reddening, leaf curling, decline, abnormal fruits, and in some cases chlorosis and mortality. The presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ (associated with Pear decline – EPPO A2 List) was detected in affected trees. It is noted that in North America, ‘Ca. P. pyri’ has been associated with a similar disease ‘Peach yellow leaf roll’, transmitted by Cacopsylla pyricola from pear to peach trees. This is the first time that ‘Ca. P. pyri’ is detected in peach trees in Spain and the first time that ‘Ca. P. pyri’ is associated in Europe with an economically important disease of peach resembling the North American disease ‘Peach yellow leaf roll’. However, it is noted that the ‘Ca. P. pyri’ strain found Lleida is genetically closer to some European or Middle Eastern strains than to the North American ‘Peach yellow leaf roll’ strain (Sabaté et al., 2014).
In September 2013, Plasmopara halstedii (EU Annexes) has been detected on numerous plants of Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’ grown in 2 commercial nurseries in Maryland (US). Affected plants showed dark necrotic lesions on the upper leaf side and sporulating masses of white mycelium on the underside of the leaves (or on both leaf surfaces in severe infections). Plants were stunned with a reduced number of flowers. P. halstedii had previously been recorded on R. fulgida cv. ‘Goldstrum’ in Florida in 2004 and Virginia in 2006 (Rivera et al., 2014).
Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in fruits of Cornus mas (Cornaceae) showing symptoms of brown rot in one location in the USA (Beckerman and Creswell, 2014).
In the USA, Raffaelea lauricola (EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time on Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae). The pathogen was found in September 2013, in a 6 m tall tree in Gainesville (Florida) which was displaying wilted leaves, discoloured sapwood and beetle entrance holes. This tree was growing in the vicinity of an avocado tree which had succumbed to the disease months earlier. In addition, studies showed that the insect vector, Xyleborus glabratus, can infest and breed in stems of L. nobilis. It is underlined that this information may be of importance in the event of an introduction of X. glabratus and its fungal associate to Mediterranean areas were L. nobilis is naturally present or cultivated (Hughes et al., 2014).
In Tenerife (Islas Canarias, Spain), the presence of Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants showing symptoms of mild leaf curling, mosaic and interveinal yellows. Although, tobacco has been reported to be an experimental host of ToCV, this is the first time that it is reported as a natural host (Fiallo-Olivé, 2014).
PCR-based assays (using specific primers) have been developed in the USA for the detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (EPPO A1 List) in root samples of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). These methods are considered to be sufficiently sensitive, cost effective, and rapid to be used in the routine diagnosis of the fungus (Dobhal et al., 2014).
In the USA, new PCR assays, TaqMan real-time PCR (Jeyaprakash et al., 2014) and multilocus PCR (Dreaden et al., 2014) have been developed for the detection of Raffaelea lauricola (EPPO Alert List). These new assays are now routinely used to diagnose laurel wilt disease in Florida.
In order to avoid any confusion with an African species of lepidoptera [originally described as Cacoecia occidentalis but then transferred into the genus Choristoneura and now called Choristoneura occidentalis (Walsingham)], the Western spruce budworm (C. occidentalis Freeman – EPPO A1 List) occurring in North America has been renamed Choristoneura freemani (Razowski, 2008).
Beckerman JL, Creswell T (2014) First report of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) on the dogwood, cornelian cherry (Cornus mas). Plant Disease 98(8), 1275-1276.
Conner KN, Olive J, Hagan AK, Zhang L, Bloodworth ME (2014) First report of impatiens downy mildew caused by Plasmopara obducens in Alabama. Plant Disease 98(7), p 1006.
Dobhal AM, Garrido PA, Orquera GK, Espindola AS, Young CA, Ochoa-Corona FM, Marek SM, Garzon CD (2014) Highly sensitive end-point PCR and SYBR Green qPCR detection of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, causal fungus of cotton root rot. Plant Disease 98(9), 1205-1212.
Dreaden TJ, Davis JM, Harmon CL, Ploetz RC, Palmateer AJ, Soltis PS, Smith JA (2014) Development of multilocus PCR assays for Raffaelea lauricola, causal agent of laurel wilt disease. Plant Disease 98(3), 379-383.
FDGDON Réunion. Fiche d’identification de Drosophila suzukii Matsumura. http://www.fdgdon974.fr/IMG/pdf/FICHE_identif_D_suzukii_V2.pdf
FDGDON Réunion. Fiche d’identification d’Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance. http://www.fdgdon974.fr/IMG/pdf/Fiche_alerte_Aleurocanthus.pdf
Fiallo-Olivé E, Espino AI, Botella-Guillén M, Gómez-González E, Reyes-Carlos JA, Navas-Castillo J (2014) Tobacco: a new natural host of Tomato chlorosis virus in Spain. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1162.
Hughes MA, Black A, Smith JA (2014) First report of laurel wilt caused by Raffaelea lauricola on bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) in the United States. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1159.
Jeyaprakash A, Davison DA, Schubert T (2014) Molecular detection of the laurel wilt fungus, Raffaelea lauricola. Plant Disease 98(4), 559-564.
Kil EJ, Byun HS, Kim S, Hwang H, Kim MK, Kim CS, Choi HS, Lee KY, Lee S (2014) First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infecting eustoma (Eustoma grandiflorum) in Korea. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1163.
Ou SQ, Gao J, Peng DL, Qi CY, Zhang JH, Meng Y, Lu BH (2014) First report of Aphelenchoides besseyi causing white tip disease of rice in Jilin province, China. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1165.
Quaglino F, Maghradze D, Chkhaidze N, Casati P, Failla O, Bianco PA (2014) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ and ‘Ca. P. convolvuli’ associated with grapevine bois noir and bindweed yellows, respectively, in Georgia. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1151.
Rivera Y, Rane K, Crouch JA (2014) First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldstrum’) in Maryland. Plant Disease 98(7), 1005-1006.
Razowski J (2008) Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from South Africa. 6: Choristoneura Hübner and Procrica Diakonoff. Polish Journal of Entomology 77, 245-254.
Sabaté J, Lavina A, Batlle A (2014) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ causing Peach yellow leaf roll (PYLR) in Spain. Plant Disease 98(7), 989-990.
Zindović J, Dall'Ara M, Rubies Antonell C, Ratti C (2014) First report of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus on peach in Montenegro. Plant Disease 98(7), p 1014.