New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) was found for the first time in the Netherlands in September 2008, on Platanus orientalis in Maastricht. It is considered that the origin of this finding is most likely due to natural spread from other European countries (NPPO of the Netherlands, 2009). Present, first found in 2008 in Maastricht (southern part).
In the Republic of Macedonia, the presence of bois noir (Stolbur phytoplasma) was reported for the first time in 2003 during a survey carried out in a small region near Veles and Skopje. Further molecular studies were done in 2006 in the main grapevine-growing regions and showed that bois noir phytoplasmas occurred in the areas of Kavadarci, Negotino, Radovis, Stip, Strumica, and Veles. Grapevine flavescence dorée was not detected during this study (Mitrev et al., 2007). Present, first detected in 2003, bois noir occurs in the main grapevine-growing regions.
The eucalyptus pest, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – EPPO Alert List) has been found in Broward County, Florida (US) in July 2008. This is the first report of this pest in North America (Pest Alert, 2008). Present, first found in 2008 in Florida.
- Detailed records
In Ontario (Canada), the presence of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – EPPO A1 List) has been reported in the following new sites: 1) in a residential area of the city of Sault Ste Marie; 2) in a private campground outside the community of Bayfield, municipality of Bluewater (Huron County); 3) in the city of Pickering, municipality of Durham; 4) in the city of Hamilton (NAPPO, 2008 and 2009).
Ceratocystis fagacearum (EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time in New York State (US). In August 2008, it was detected on wilting red oaks (Quercus rubra) growing in a residential area in Scotia. According to the owners of the property, 12 red oaks have died during the last 3 years (each tree died within one growing season after wilting symptoms were noticed). Investigations showed that 12 additional trees were infected by C. fagacearum in the same area. According to the authors, this discovery expands the known range of C. fagacearum to the north-east by at least 300 km, supporting the hypothesis that this fungus continues to spread via animal vectors and/or human activities within the USA (Jensen-Tracy et al., 2009).
In Liguria (Italy), Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae – EPPO A2 List) continues to spread. In 2009, the pest has been found in 4 communes (Ortonovo, Castelnuovo Magra, Sarzana, and S. Stefano Magra) in the province of La Spezia (Regional PPO of Liguria, 2009).
In Poland, larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A2 List) were observed on sweet maize (Zea mays) near Rzeszów in July 2007. It is supposed that these specimens belonged to the second or third generation of the pest, and that they were resulting from adults that had flown over to South-Eastern Poland (Bereś, 2008).
Two incursions of Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae – EPPO A2 List) were noted in 2007 in the United Kingdom. In May 2007, 4 live adult moths were discovered in the atrium of an office building in Kent. They emerged from Phoenix canariensis trees of 4.5 m high which had been imported in October 2006 from Spain. During the following weeks, 5 other adults were captured on the same site. In July 2007, 3 living larvae of P. archon were discovered in a nursery in North London damaging Trachycarpus fortunei imported from Italy. All affected palms were destroyed (Reid, 2008).
In Turkey, severe outbreaks of Plasmopara halstedii (EU Annexes) were observed in commercial fields of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the region of Marmara during springs 2007 and 2008. It is felt that the low temperatures and heavy rains favoured the disease (Göre, 2008).
- Host plants
In blackberry crops (Rubus spp.) displaying symptoms of blackberry yellow vein disease, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus, INSV – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in addition to Blackberry yellow vein associated virus. More than 400 plants from North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia (US) showing symptoms of blackberry yellow vein disease or other virus-like symptoms were tested for INSV by ELISA, and 33% were found infected by INSV (Tzanetakis et al., 2009).
Natural infections of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – EPPO Alert List) have been detected in Atriplex micrantha (Chenopodiaceae). Infected weeds were collected in commercial onion fields in Utah (US). Leaves of A. micrantha displayed a range of symptoms including spotting, chlorosis and necrosis (Evans et al., 2009).
In July 2008, Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO Alert List) was detected in plants of basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Sicilia, Italy. Affected plants showed interveinal chlorosis on young leaves. Although the disease does not cause severe symptoms on basil, this species is frequently grown near tomatoes and could therefore act as a virus reservoir (Davino et al., 2008).
Bereś PK (2008) [Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hüb.) – quarantine maize pest. Progress in Plant Protection 48(1), 90-93 (in Polish).
Davino S, Accotto GP, Masenga V, Torta L, Davino M (2008) Basil (Ocimum basilicum), a new host of Pepino mosaic virus. New Disease Reports vol. 18 (August 2008 to January 2009). http://www.bspp.org.uk/publications/new-disease-reports/ndr.php?id=018021
Evans CK, Bag S, Frank E, Reeve JR, Ransom C, Drost D, Pappu HR (2009) Natural infection of Iris yellow spot virus in twoscale saltbush (Atriplex micrantha) growing in Utah. Plant disease 93(4), p 430.
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (US). Pest Alert. A Eucalyptus pest, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), genus and species new to Florida and North America by J Wiley and P Skelley (2008-12-01). http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/leptocybe_invasa.html
Göre ME (2008) Epidemic outbreaks of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on sunflower in Thrace, part of the Marmara region of Turkey. New Disease Reports vol. 18 (August 2008 to January 2009). http://www.bspp.org.uk/publications/new-disease-reports/ndr.php?id=018008
Jensen-Tracy S, Kenaley S, Hudler G, Harrington T, Logue C (2009) First report of oak wilt fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, in New York State. Plant Disease 93(4), p 428.
NAPPO Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports
Canada (2008-09-22) Update on the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in Canada – Detection in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.
Canada (2008-10-23) Update on the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in Canada - Detection in the Municipality of Bluewater, Ontario.
Canada (2008-12-23) Update on the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in Canada - Detection in Pickering, Ontario.
Canada (2009-02-03) Update on the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in Canada - Detection in Hamilton, Ontario. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=367
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2009-05.
Mitrev S, Nakova E, Pejčinovski F, Angelini E (2007) Geographical distribution of ‘bois noir’ phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in the Republic of Macedonia. Bulletin of Insectology 60(2), 155-156.
Regional Plant Protection Service of Liguria, Italy (2009-05).
Reid S (2008) Recent quarantine interceptions of Paysandisia archon Burmeister. Atropos 33, 25-27.
Tzanetakis IE, Guzman-Baeny TL, VanEsbroeck ZP, Fernandez GE, Martin RR (2009 First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in blackberry in the Southeastern United States. Plant disease 93(4), p 432.