Details on quarantine pests in Italy: 1999 situation
The Italian journal 'Informatore Fitopatologico' presents the phytosanitary status of the main crops in the Italian regions in 1999. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following details on several pests and diseases of quarantine interest.
Aphelenchoides besseyi (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): found at low levels in rice seeds in Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta and Lombardia (see also EPPO RS 99/086).
Apple proliferation phytoplasma (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): is reported in Trentino and studies have been initiated to better understand its epidemiology.
Cameraria ohridella (EPPO Alert List): continues to spread rapidly in Italy. It presence is reported in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lombardia, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (see also EPPO RS 99/122).
Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): occurs in Campania, , Emilia-Romagna (spreading in Bologna city and in Ferrara province), Lazio, Lombardia (Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lecco, Milano, Varese), Veneto.
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): the first foci was found in 1998 near the International airport of Venezia. Eradication measures were taken, and in 1999 only 2 adult specimen were caught in pheromone traps. It is hoped to eradicate this pest. A monitoring programme was set up in Lombardia using pheromone traps and no insects were caught (see also EPPO RS 2000/031).
Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): No major progression of the disease is reported in 1999, climatic conditions were less favourable than in 1998 and the disease was contained. In Emilia-Romagna, the situation remains stable compared to 1998, the disease is essentially found in the same areas (provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, Reggio Emilia and Ravenna). In Lombardia, it was first reported in 1997. 11 foci were reported in 1997, and 5 in 1998 (provinces of Bergamo and Mantova). In 1999, symptoms reappeared only in 3 sites of the province of Mantova. All surveys carried out in nurseries gave negative results. In Veneto, E. amylovora was successfully contained in 1999 to areas previously contaminated. It mainly occurs on pear trees in Basso Veronese (see also EPPO RS 99/095). Fireblight was found in Alto Adige (see EPPO RS 2000/022).
Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida (EPPO A2 quarantine pests): in Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta region, potato cyst nematodes are only found in mountainous parts in private gardens.
Grapevine flavescence dorée (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): is of growing concern to many grapevine-growing regions of northern Italy. In Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta, the disease and the vector Scaphoideus titanus have been found in a small isolated foci near Cuneo. In Liguria, the disease has been observed on a few 8 year-old grapevines near Albenga. Flavescence dorée is spreading in Lombardia and serious outbreaks have been found in the area of Oltepro pavese (area south of Pavia - 50 % incidence) and province of Brescia (60-70 % incidence). Affected plants are being destroyed and chemical control is being applied against the vector. In Friuli-Venezia Giulia, only a small outbreak has been found bordering the Veneto region. It is, however, considered as a very serious threat and measures are being taken to prevent any further spread (destruction of affected plants, chemical control of S. titanus, monitoring programme). The disease is present in Veneto and active control methods are being taken. In Emilia-Romagna, a general increase of grapevine yellows has been observed. In most cases, bois noir phytoplasma is the causal agent, and flavescence dorée only occurs in the province of Piacenza.
Plum pox potyvirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): is subject to a national monitoring programme. In Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta, 498 plots were inspected (187.000 trees), and the virus was found at a low incidence on apricot and plum (0.75% of inspected trees were infected) and M type strains were not detected. In Lombardia, 6 foci were found on peach trees (5 in Brescia and 1 in Mantova). Disease incidence was low. In Veneto, 1.700 ha have been inspected. 111 ha (mainly peach trees near Verona) were found infected and destroyed. Disease incidence is uniform and rather high in places where it was already found in 1997/98, but in other areas, disease incidence remains very low.
Puccinia horiana (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): a few outbreaks were observed on chrysanthemum (cut flower production) in Liguria and Lombardia.
Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): an isolated outbreak was reported in 1995 in Veneto. A monitoring programme was implemented on potatoes and Solanum dulcamara, and during the last four years the bacterium was not found again. The authorities now consider that Veneto region is free from R. solanacearum (see also EPPO RS 97/111).
Rhagoletis completa: continues to damage walnut trees in Piemonte-Valle d'Aosta region.
Spodoptera littoralis (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): outbreaks are reported in Liguria on cyclamen and basil (Ocimum basilicum).
Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus: is reported in Abruzzo, Campania (tomato), Basilicata (tomato), Calabria (tomato), Liguria (chrysanthemum, Dimorphotheca, artichoke, tomato, pepper), Lombardia (sporadically on tomato), Molise (tomato), Puglia (tomato), Toscana (chrysanthemum, pepper), Veneto (tomato).
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): was found on tomato grown for seed production in Lombardia (Casalasco). A few outbreaks were reported from Umbria and Sardegna; infected plants have been destroyed.
(1999) Bilancio Fitosanitario delle'anno 1999.
Informatore Fitopatologico, no 1-2, 5-32.
Informatore Fitopatologico, no 3, 5-38.