Control methods against Monosporascus cannonballus
So far, the only means of control against Monosporascus cannonballus (EPPO Alert List), which causes sudden wilt of melons, is soil fumigation with methyl bromide. However, as methyl bromide is expected to be banned within the coming years, alternative control methods have to be found. Studies were carried out in Israel on possible alternative methods:
1) Laboratory studies showed that fluazinam totally inhibited the growth of M. cannonballus in culture (at concentrations of 10 µg a.i /ml). Field trials were conducted to verify the effectiveness of this fungicide. Fluazinam was applied via drip irrigation, 4 times during the growing season on three melon plots. Disease incidence was reduced in all cases but at different levels: 87% in two plots and only 32% in the third plot. Although the results were variable, it was concluded that fluazinam could be a useful tool to use within an integrated programme of control.
2) Another study was done on the use of soil fumigation with reduced rates of methyl bromide and the use of grafted melon plants, alone or in combination. Results showed that among 8 rootstocks tested (Cucurbita spp.), Cucurbita maxima cv. Brava gave the best results in terms of wilt reduction and horticultural performance. It was also found that the best control results were obtained with a combination of reduced rates of methyl bromide (pre-planting) and the use of grafted plants (75 % to 100 % wilt reduction in tested melon plots). The authors pointed out that the additional use of fluazinam during the growing season (as described above) could perhaps further improve control against M. cannonballus.
Cohen, R.; Pivonia, S.; Shtienberg, D.; Edelstein, M.; Raz, D.; Gerstl, Z.; Katan, J. (1999) Efficacy of fluazinam in suppression of Monosporascus cannonballus the causal agent of sudden wilt of melons.
Plant Disease, 83(12), 1137-1141.
Edelstein, M.; Cohen, R.; Burger, Y.; Shriber, S.; Pivonia, S.; Shtienberg, D. (1999) Integrated management of sudden wilt in melons, caused by Monosporascus cannonballus, using grafting and reduced rates of methyl bromide.
Plant Disease, 83(12), 1142-1145.