EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 03 - 2000 Num. article: 2000/044

Virus diseases of almond in Western Anatolia (Turkey)

Turkey is an important producer of almonds; among Mediterranean countries it is the second largest producer after Spain. Western Anatolia produces 25% of total Turkish production. Surveys were done in 1992 and 1993 in three districts of Western Anatolia (Aydýn, Balýkesir and Ýzmir) on virus diseases of almond. State and commercial nursery plantations of almond were surveyed (19,300 almond trees in 1992 and 19,000 in 1993), and leaf samples were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA (56 samples in 1992 and 40 in 1993). During this survey, the main virus symptoms observed were chlorotic and necrotic spots, calico, mosaic, narrowing and deformation of leaves, gummosis, weak growth, dwarfing and short internodes of the trees. The following viruses were detected: prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus, prune dwarf ilarvirus, raspberry ringspot nepovirus, peach rosette mosaic nepovirus (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) and tomato ringspot nepovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest). The most commonly detected was prunus necrotic rinspot ilarvirus and then prune dwarf ilarvirus. Few samples were infected by peach rosette mosaic nepovirus, and very few by tomato ringspot nepovirus.
Note: The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence in Turkey of peach rosette mosaic nepovirus, which was so far not considered as present in Europe. A publication from Awad et al. (1997) mentions its presence in Egypt on peach trees in Qualubia.


Azerý, T.; Çýçek, Y. (1997) Detection of virus diseases affecting almond nursery trees in Western Anatolia (Turkey).
Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 27(4), 547-550.

Awad, M.A.E.; Ibrahem, L.M.; Aboul-Ata, A.E.; Ziedan, M.; Mazyad, H.M.; Abdel-Aziz, E.; Mansour, N. (1998) Virus-free plum and peach mother plant production in Egypt.
Acta Horticulturae, no. 472, 531-536.