Situation of Erwinia amylovora in Spain
In Spain, Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was first found in 1995 in País Vasco in the province of Guipúzcoa in an orchard of cider apple (see EPPO RS 96/107). The disease later spread towards the north-east, 25 foci being detected in 1996 and 1997, essentially on cider apple. Fireblight was then found throughout the province of Guipúzcoa.
In 1996, it was detected in Navarra and is now widespread in the north and centre of Navarra where it mainly affects Pyracantha. In the north, several foci were found in 10 municipalities located in the valley of Baztán. A similar situation occurs near Pamplona. Active eradication measures prevented the spread of the disease towards the south of Navarra where numerous fruit trees are grown.
In Cataluña, an infected pear tree was intercepted at La Tallada (Girona) in 1997 and was destroyed. No new cases have been reported from this area. In 1998, fireblight was detected in Lérida and 6 foci were found in commercial pear orchards (including one of 10 ha in the municipalities of Torreserona and Corbins), but were successfully eradicated. In 1999 in the same area, eight smaller foci were detected and eradicated in commercial pear orchards. These appeared to be related to the most important foci previously found in 1998. In this case, rapid eradication measures prevented the spread of the disease in this important production area of apples and pears.
In Segovia (Castilla-León), foci of various extent were found in nurseries in 1996 and were eradicated. In Guadalajara (Castilla - La Mancha) in 1998, several foci were found in Crataegus and various Rosaceae including fruit trees. These were eradicated but new foci appeared again in 1999. In 1998 and 1999, fireblight was found on Pyracantha and eradicated in gardens at Jaca (Huesca, Aragón).
The pattern of appearance of fireblight foci in Spain suggests that in many cases new foci are linked to the introduction of infected plant material. Efforts will continue to limit the spread of the disease.
Montesinos, E.; López, M.M.; Murillo, J. (1999) Importancia y situatión actual del fuego bacteriano (Erwinia amylovora) en España. Epidemiología, daños y prevención.
Phytoma-España, no. 114, 128-136.