Studies on the biology of Toxoptera citricida
Laboratory studies were carried out in Florida (US) on the development, survival and reproduction of Toxoptera citricida (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) at 8 constant temperatures (8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 and 32 °C). The population studied was reared from aphids collected on a citrus tree in Broward county, Florida. The lower developmental threshold for immature stages was estimated at 6.27 °C, and the upper threshold for nymph was estimated at 31.17;°C. The percentage of survival of immature stages varied from 81 to 97 % within the temperature range of 8 to 30 °C. But at 32 °C, survival was reduced to 29 %. The average longevity of adult females ranged from 60 days at 10 °C to 6.5 days at 32 °C. The average progeny per female was 52.5 at 20 °C and 7.5 at 32 °C. Mean generation time ranged from 51 days at 10;°C to 8 days at 32 °C. Using the intrinsic rate of natural increase, it was estimated that the optimal temperature for population growth was 20-30 °C (the highest intrinsic rate was obtained at 28 °C).
Tsai, J.H.; Wang, K. (1999) Life table study of brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) at different temperatures.
Environmental Entomology, 28(3), 412-419.