Tospoviruses in Argentina
In Argentina damage caused by tospoviruses to vegetable crops were sporadically reported in the past. But since 1994, severe outbreaks have been observed every year in the Provinces of Mendoza and Buenos Aires. The main affected crops are tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum). During 1994-95, 100% losses in tomato and lettuce have been reported in several fields. In capsicum, mean loss in production was 40% in Buenos Aires Province. A survey on tospoviruses was carried out from 1994 to 1996 in the Provinces of Mendoza and Buenos Aires. A total of 543 samples of tomato, lettuce and capsicum showing symptoms were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA. In addition, symptomatic ornamentals, other vegetable crops (e.g. celery, potato, spinach) and weeds were tested. The results showed that 3 tospoviruses are present in Argentina: groundnut ringspot tospovirus (found in 222 samples - 40.8 %), tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest, found in 194 samples - 32.7 %) and tomato chlorotic spot tospovirus (found in 50 samples - 14.7 %). These three viruses were found in vegetable and ornamentals crops, and in weeds. Mixed infections were not found during this particular survey, but were observed in later studies. Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus prevailed in the Buenos Aires Province on tomato, lettuce and protected capsicum. Groundnut ringspot tospovirus prevailed in the Province of Mendoza on tomato and lettuce. During this survey, impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was not detected. Further studies are still needed in particular in other Provinces of Argentina.
Gracia, O.; de Borbon, C.M.; Granval de Millan, N.; Cuesta, G.V. (1999) Occurrence of different tospoviruses in vegetable crops in Argentina.
Journal of Phytopathology, 147(4), 193-256.