News from the Diagnostic Centre of the Dutch NPPO
The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following points from the 1997 and 1998 Annual Reports of the Diagnostic Centre of the Dutch NPPO.
Apple proliferation phytoplasma (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was detected for the first time in nursery trees in summer 1997. The sources of infection could not be traced at that time. In 1998, it was found in a few orchards in the southern part of the country. Strict measures are being taken in these orchards to prevent any further spread.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was first found in a public garden in the province of Zeeland in 1993. Surveys later showed that the pest is widely distributed in the southern part of the country. In 1997, C. pronubana was incidentally found in glasshouses on Capsicum. In 1998, it was found in several glasshouses on various hosts: Alstroemeria, Kalanchoe, Laurus nobilis, Osmanthus. In some cases heavy infestations were noted.
Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was found in 1997 in 15 plant species from the Netherlands and from other countries. It was found for the first time on Anthurium andraeanum, Curcuma longa, Saxifraga stolonifera and Zantedeschia albomaculata. At the end of 1998 it was also found in young plants of Capsicum annuum cv. Fiesta. Affected plants showed severe stem necrosis, some of the older leaves showed a few irregular necrotic lesions.
In 1996, plum pox potyvirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was found in Prunus domestica cv. Jubileum (see EPPO RS 96/194). It was found in 29 orchards out of 43 orchards. In 1997, the virus was found in 16 of the 43 orchards. Eradication measures continued to be applied.
Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was found in 1997 in 26 different plant species from the Netherlands and from other countries. It was detected for the first time in Cestrum nocturnum, Lysimachia consisti(?), L. nummularia, Sinningia and Zantedeschia aethiopica. In 1998 it was detected in 37 samples of 16 different ornamentals and vegetables from the Netherlands and other countries. It was found for the first time on Lycianthes rantonnettii.
In 1998, Stephanitis pyrioides (EPPO Alert List) was found on Azalea bonsai originating from Japan and kept in a nursery in Bleiswijk. This species had established in the Netherlands between 1905 and 1910 on Azalea in Boskoop (province of Zuid-Holland). In 1995, an infestation was observed in a nursery in Vleuten (province of Utrecht).
It is recalled that Synchytrium endobioticum (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was first found in the Netherlands around 1914, and gradually spread in potato-growing regions until the Second World War. ;In the early 1950s, the disease became such a problem that in the north-eastern part, potato cultivars susceptible to pathotype 1 were forbidden and further phytosanitary measures were taken. Until 1973, these phytosanitary measures were successful. However in 1973, pathotype 2 was found for the first time. In 1991, pathotype 1 was detected in the south-eastern part of the country. So far, only pathotypes 1 and 2 have been found in the Netherlands. At present, results of intensive surveys have showed that S. endobioticum occurs in two areas. 24 infected fields (pathotype 2 only) were found in the north-eastern part (province of Drenthe), and 32 infected fields (pathotype 1 only) in the south-eastern part (province of Limburg). Strict phytosanitary measures are being applied, in particular to prevent any further spread.
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) was found in 1998 in 8 samples of Anthurium originating from 5 places of cut flower production. The bacterium was not detected in any nursery. Eradication measures were taken.
Annual Report 1997, Diagnostic Centre, Plant Protection Service, 135 pp.
Annual Report 1998, Diagnostic Centre, Plant Protection Service, 127 pp.