EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 05 - 2011 Num. article: 2011/127

Current status of management actions on invasive alien plants in Poland


A new book on the management of invasive alien plants in wetlands in Poland has been published by the Naturalists’ Club, an independent non-governmental organization working in the field of nature conservation and environmental education. This book, written by leading Polish experts in the field of biological invasions, presents the most invasive alien plants in wetlands, with their situation in Poland, as well as control programmes currently implemented on some of them. The authors stress that wetlands and river valleys, commonly regarded as invasion corridors, present particular challenges for controlling alien plants. Indeed, their linear characteristics, changes in water level (flooding) and the mosaic of densely-populated and inaccessible areas  render control programmes technically difficult, very costly and constant propagule pressure from upper sections of the basins often make the results efficient for a short-term period only. Prevention therefore remains the top priority. This includes education programmes discouraging the public from growing invasive alien plants in their gardens.

Species
Distribution in Poland
Control methods/recommended actions
Acer negundo (Sapindaceae)
Widespread in central and southern parts of Poland.
The use for ornamental or landscaping purposes should be limited; long-term forest management practices should include elimination of this species.
Acorus calamus (Acoraceae)
Widespread in lowlands.
Short-term results may be achieved by mowing
Aster lancelolatus, A. novae-angliae, A. novi-belgii, A. x salignus, A. tradescantii (Asteraceae)
Widespread throughout the country.
Digging or pulling out; cutting flowers before seed formation.
Azolla filiculoides (Salviniaceae, EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants)
A few scattered localities.
Mechanical control may only be effective in small waterbodies and when repeated; use of herbicides may be more effective but is prohibited in waters.
The import, trade and possession of this species will be prohibited in Poland.
Bidens frondosa (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Widespread throughout the country.
Mowing.
Elodea canadensis (Hydrocharitaceae)
Widespread throughout the country.
Pulling out; introduction of herbivorous alien fish species is considered but is controversial.
Eragrostis multicaulis, E. albensis, E. pilosa, E. amurensis, E. poaeoides (Poaceae)
Detailed distribution not fully known due to difficult identification of species.
Control has not been attempted.
Erechtites hieracifolia var. cacalioides (Asteraceae)
SW Poland, scattered localities elsewhere.
Monitoring of the population dynamics.
Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae)
Widespread throughout the country; most abundant in SE Poland.
Pulling or digging out, mowing; limiting the use for ornamental purposes in gardens through public awareness.
Fallopia japonica; F. sachalinensis, F. x bohemica (Polygonaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
F. japonica is widespread throughout the country; most abundant in SW and S parts of Poland; F. sachalinensis is in scattered localities throughout the country; F. x bohemica is widespread throughout the country.
Mowing, cutting, digging out, burning out, grazing, removal of ground; long-term chemical control with glyphosphate, 2,4-D; outside river valleys and wetlands – control with picloram, triclopyr, imazapyr; combination of mechanical and chemical control is most effective; limiting the use for ornamental purposes in gardens and for honey production through public awareness.
The import, trade and possession of this species will be prohibited in Poland.
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Oleaceae)
Widespread throughout the country due to its use in landscaping.
The use for ornamental or landscaping purposes should be limited; long-term forest management practices should include elimination of this species.
Helianthus tuberosus (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Widespread throughout the country.
The use for fodder or bioenergy production should be limited, particularly in areas of high natural value.
Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Scattered localities in SW Poland, rare elsewhere.
Digging out; cutting flowers before seed formation.
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae, EPPO A2 List)
Scattered localities throughout the country.
Digging out; cutting flowers before seed formation.
Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Widespread throughout the country; most abundant in SE Poland.
Pulling out entire plants or cutting flowers before seed formation; grazing (cattle, sheep) before flowering; limiting the use for ornamental purposes in gardens through public awareness.
Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae)
Most widespread in NW and SW parts of Poland; scattered localities elsewhere.
Pulling out or mowing.
Oxycoccus macrocarpos (Ericaceae)
Two localities in N Poland.
Control has not been attempted.
Rudbeckia laciniata (Asteraceae)
Widespread throughout the country; most abundant in the South part of Poland.
Regular, long-term mowing, digging out; in areas of highest natural value, restricted use of herbicides may be used.
Rumex confertus (Polygonaceae)
SE and Central Poland.
Use of herbicides as mowing or grazing are not effective; biological control with insects already present in the country (Hypera rumicis, Aphis fabae and Apion frumentarium)
Solidago gigantea, S. canadensis (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Widespread throughout the country; S. gigantea most abundant in SW and W parts, S. canadensis in SE and Central parts of Poland.
Regular mowing; increasing shading by tree planting; pulling or digging out; limiting the use for ornamental purposes in gardens and for honey production through public awareness.
Solidago graminifolia (Asteraceae)
About 40 scattered localities.
Regular mowing; flooding (over 10 days); pulling or digging out.
Spiraea tomentosa (Rosaceae)
A few scattered localities; locally widespread.
Maintaining proper water levels in wetlands; cutting and pulling out followed by herbicide application.
Typha laxmannii (Typhaceae)
Scattered localities in S Poland.
Regular mowing, flooding or drying off of the areas of occurrence (in artificial waterbodies).
Veronica peregrina (Plantaginaceae)
A few scattered localities.
Monitoring of the population dynamics.
Xanthium orientale subsp. riparium (Asteraceae)
Widespread in river valleys.
Mowing early in the season; pulling out in areas of high natural value.



Sources

Dajdok Z, Pawlaczyk P (2009) Invasive plant species of wetland ecosystems in Poland. Publisher Naturalist Club. [In Polish] 168 p.

http://www.kp.org.pl/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=335&category_id=15&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=170