Details on quarantine pests in Spain: 2000 situation
The Spanish journal ‘Phytoma-España’ presents the phytosanitary status of the main crops in the Spanish regions for the year 2000. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following details on several quarantine pests or pests of the Alert List.
Aleurodicus dispersus and Lecanoides floccissimus (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae - both on the EPPO Alert List): as already reported, these two species of whiteflies are causing problems in Islas Canarias on many ornamental species (e.g. Ficus benjamina, F. pumila, many Palmae).
Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): detected in very few plots of sugar beet in the Province of Alava, in País Vasco.
Bemisia tabaci (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Comunidad Valenciana, its incidence on many horticultural crops (Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae) has increased. It is also a problem on these crops in Andalucía. High populations are reported on capsicum crops from Islas Canarias.
Bois noir phytoplasma: in La Rioja, it was found in young plantations of grapevine on material which originated from France.
Citrus tristeza closterovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): high incidence of the virus was observed in old orchards in Cataluña.
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae - EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Cataluña, severe attacks were observed on fruit crops near Gerona, but it is not expected that populations will survive the winter there; it also occurred in Lérida. In Comunidad Valenciana, rather high populations were observed on citrus. In La Rioja, C. capitata is usually an occasional pest, but in 2000 damage was observed on peach, apple and pear fruits. In Andalucía, its incidence in citrus groves varied (low in Huelva and Almería, high in Cadiz and Malága). High populations were reported from Islas Baleares. In Islas Canarias, high incidence was observed in citrus, loquat, peach, and pear crops. In Murcia, a rather high incidence was observed on fruit crops but the pest could be controlled.
Clavibacter michiganensis subp. sepedonicus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): declared absent from Comunidad Valenciana, Islas Baleares, Islas Canarias, Castilla y León.
Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): declared absent in Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana, Islas Baleares. In País Vasco, a low incidence of the disease was reported in the Gipuzkoa Province.
Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae - EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Andalucía, damage to grapevine has increased compared to previous years, especially in the Province of Cadiz; it also caused problems on horticultural crops. In Islas Canarias, it attacked Cucurbitaceae, many ornamental species (in particular roses), and also nectarine. In Murcia, it is considered as a pest of grapevine and nectarines.
Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae - EPPO A2 quarantine pest): reported for the first time from Islas Canarias on eucalyptus, but did not cause economic damage.
Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Cataluña, the outbreak which appeared in 1996 in the grapevine-growing region north of Gerona (Alt Empordá) is now considered as practically eradicated. However, to ensure that eradication has been totally achieved, treatments against Scaphoideus titanus are continuing. Declared absent in Andalucía and Islas Baleares
Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae - EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Cataluña, it occurred on outdoor tomatoes in the coastal area. In Andalucía, damage was reported on strawberry in the Province of Huelva and on cotton the Provinces of Sevilla, Cordóba and Cádiz. In Extremadura, it attacked tomatoes.
Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera, Tineidae - EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Islas Canarias, it is reported as a pest on papaya and Strelitzia crops.
Pepino mosaic potexvirus (EPPO Alert List): in Islas Canarias, it was first detected in March 2000, in isolated farms in Gran Canaria and Tenerife. But the disease did not produce clear symptoms on the plants or on the tomato fruits. In Murcia, this virus is considered as a new and serious problem on tomato crops. Declared absent in Islas Baleares.
Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae): the general trend is that biological control is now effective and that populations are decreasing in most Spanish regions (Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana, Andalucía, Islas Canarias, Murcia)
Plum pox potyvirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Comunidad Valenciana, damage has increased, the campaign of destruction of affected trees continued. In Extremadura, the virus has been detected in a few plantations of plums for a few years but at very low levels. However, in 2000 symptoms and damage were observed for the first time on Japanese plums cv. Red Beaut. So far, only PPV-D strains were isolated.
Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): declared absent from Comunidad Valenciana, Islas Baleares, Islas Canarias, Castilla y León.
Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): in Cataluña, high incidence was observed in lettuce. It occurred in País Vasco, on protected crops of tomato, capsicum and lettuce. In Andalucía, a high incidence of the virus has been observed on capsicum. In Islas Baleares, it occurred on tomatoes. In Extremadura, it was reported on tomato crops but with a very low incidence. In Murcia, the virus is now widespread on tomato crops and weeds. However, the situation has improved as growers are widely applying control methods against the disease (destruction of infected plants, control of the vector F. occidentalis without elimination of beneficials).
Begomoviruses of TYLCV group (EPPO A2 quarantine pests): in Cataluña, TYLCV was first reported in 2000 on tomatoes in the ‘comarca de Maresme’. In Comunidad Valenciana, it has been occurring for a few years in the provinces of Alicante and Valencia. In Andalucía, the virus is considered as a major problem on tomato crops. In Islas Baleares, it has a low incidence on tomato crops. In Islas Canarias, the virus is a major problem on tomatoes which causes high losses. Two viruses of the group were simultaneously introduced in 1999 in the south of Gran Canaria (TYLCV-Sardinia) and in the Southeast of Tenerife (TYLCV-Israel). They then spread to Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. In Murcia, the virus continued to cause problems in tomato crops.
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (EPPO A2 quarantine pest): found on capsicum in Aragón in a few limited areas.
Balance fitosanitario de los cultivos españoles durante el año 2000.
Phytoma-España no. 127, 18-46.
Phytoma-España no. 128, 26-51.