First record of Monilinia fructicola in Switzerland
Following the discovery of Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) in several European countries (i.e. France in 2001, Spain in 2006, and Czech Republic in 2007), surveys were carried out in Switzerland in 2003 and 2005. Fruit samples (71 in 2003, 165 in 2005) were collected from Prunus orchards located in different Swiss cantons but all results were negative. In 2008, it was decided to focus the efforts on apricots (Prunus armeniaca) from the canton of Valais which is one of the main Prunus-growing area in Switzerland and which is neighbouring France where the disease occurs. In 2008, 222 symptomatic apricot fruits were collected and tested. Most samples were found infected by M. fructigena or M. laxa but 10 samples (P. armeniaca cvs. ‘Luizet’ and ‘Orangered’) coming from a single orchard (commune of Riddes) were found infected by M. fructicola. These positive results were confirmed by using the EPPO Diagnostic protocol*. The origin of this infection is still unknown. However, it is noted that the infested orchard which was originally planted with cultivar ‘Luizet’ only, had been partly replanted with the cultivar ‘Orangered’ during the last few years. It is suspected that the disease was introduced with infected young plants of cultivar ‘Orangered’ and investigations are under way to trace back their origin. Control strategies are currently being developed in Switzerland to eradicate or contain M. fructicola. This is the first report of M. fructicola in Switzerland.
The situation of Monilinia fructicola in Switzerland can be described as follows: Present, first detected in 2008 in one apricot orchard (Valais canton).
* EPPO (2003) EPPO Standards. PM 7/18 Diagnostic protocol. Monilinia fructicola. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 33(2), 245–247. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/PM7_DIAGNOS/pm7-18(1).pdf
Mayor JP (2009) Faits marquants en 2008 à Agroscope ACW. ACW diagnostique la première apparition de Monilinia fructicola dans un verger suisse de fruits à noyau. Revue suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture, Horticulture 41(3), 157-164.
Patocchi A, Bünter M, Gerber A, Hilber-Bodmer M (2009) Première apparition de Monilinia fructicola dans un verger de fruits à noyau en Suisse. Revue suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture, Horticulture 41(2), 113-116.