New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In 2012, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (unassigned member of the Betaflexviridae family – formerly EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in the Republic of Korea. The virus was detected in 3 samples of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) collected from 1 orchard located in Gyeonggi province. These results were also confirmed by indexing on Prunus serrulata cv. ‘Kwanzan’ (Cho et al., 2014).
In Bulgaria, Dickeya dianthicola (EPPO A2 List) has recently been detected for the first time causing blackleg on potato (Solanum tuberosum). In spring 2011, unusual symptoms were observed in a single potato field near Plovdiv. On this plot, where no potato had been cultivated before, recently emerged plants showed wilting on lower leaves, followed by desiccation of leaf margins and necrosis at the stem base (blackleg). Mother tubers were partially or entirely rotted. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of D. dianthicola (Bobev et al., 2014). Present, found in 1 potato field.
A new flea beetle, Luperomorpha xanthodera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been reported from several European countries (see EPPO RS 2007/195, 2012/012). L.;xanthodera originates from the Far East and shows an invasive behaviour in its introduced range. For the moment, no severe damage has been reported, but this insect is very polyphagous. In particular, adults by feeding on flowers and leaves of many ornamental plant species may reduce their aesthetic value. In Europe, it was first reported in 2003 in the United Kingdom on roses (in garden centres). The insect was then reported on various ornamentals in Italy (2006), France (2008), the Netherlands (2008), Switzerland, Germany (2009), Hungary (2010), Austria (2011), and more recently in Poland (2012). In July 2012, L. xanthodera was collected (with a sweep net) in an experimental plot of Origanum vulgare near Warsaw. It is noted that this plot was located in the vicinity of a garden centre selling a wide range of imported horticultural plants (Kozłowski and Legutowska, 2014). Present, first found in 2012 in 1 location (near Warsaw).
In the Dominican Republic, symptoms resembling those of Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) have been observed on greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops in Jarabacoa and Constanza since 2011/2012. The presence of TSWV in diseased plants was confirmed by serological and molecular tests. The thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List), has also been observed in infected crops (Martínez et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2011/2012 on protected crops in the Northern part of the island.
- Detailed records
In November 2012, the presence of Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Andalucia, Spain. The fungus was found in an orchard in Almonaster la Real (province of Huelva), where approximately 20 chestnut trees (Castanea sativa cv. 'Vazqueño') were showing cankers. In 2013, 6 other outbreak sites were detected in the vicinity of the first finding (5 in Almonaster la Real, and 1 in the nearby village of Jabugo) (Bascón et al., 2014).
In China, the presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus, TYLCV – EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in 2006 in Shanghai. Subsequent monitoring showed that TYLCV had spread to Zheijiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Beijing and Hebei provinces, causing economic losses in tomato crops. A survey on TYLCV and its vector (Bemisia tabaci biotypes B and Q) conducted in 2012, detected TYLCV in 11 Chinese provinces and showed that the virus had spread to Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Shanxi, Neimenggu and Hubei provinces. The prevalence of B. tabaci biotype Q and its concurrent invasion in China, suggest that it has played a key role in the rapid spread of TYLCV (Pan et al., 2012).
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticum’ (EPPO A1 List) occurs in the province of Guizhou, China (Ma et al., 2013).
In Honduras, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (EPPO A1 List, potato haplotypes) has been detected in Capsicum annuum crops. Symptoms were observed in commercial fields in several departments including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso and Olancho. Many of these fields were also infested with the psyllid vector, Bactericera cockerelli (Munyaneza et al., 2014).
- New host plants
In November 2012, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (Tospovirus, CSNV – EPPO A1 List) was detected on Eustoma grandiflorum plants grown in a commercial glasshouse in Atibaia (São Paulo state), Brazil. Infected plants showed necrotic spots on leaves and stems, followed by a systemic necrosis (Duarte et al., 2014).
In the province of Konya, Turkey, the presence of Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Spiraea prunifolia grown for landscaping. Affected plants showed dying branches, necrotic leaves and blighted twigs (Bastas et al., 2014).
A new diagnostic method for Spiroplasma citri (EU Annexes) has been developed in California (US). The detection marker is a protein secreted by S. citri during the plant infection process. An antibody generated against this protein was able to distinguish infected plants (citrus and periwinkle) from healthy plants. This antiserum could then be used to detect S. citri with a direct tissue print assay (Shi et al., 2014).
- New species
In China, a new parasitoid species of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO A1 List, vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) has been described. Callimomoides monochaphagae sp. nov. is a solitary endoparasitoid of eggs of M. alternatus. As the natural parasitism rate observed was of 12.6%, it is considered that the use of C. monochaphagae as a biocontrol agent against M. alternatus should be further studied (Yang et al., 2014).
A new phytoplasma disease called sunflower phyllody has recently been observed on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Argentina. In 2010/2011, plants with small and yellow leaves, shortened internodes, abnormal branches, flowers transformed into small heads and capitulum with different degrees of deformations were observed in a sunflower field in Pedro Luro (Buenos Aires province). A phytoplasma species belonging to the 16SrIII group (X-disease group) was consistently found in association with sunflower phyllody (Guzmán et al., 2014).
In New Zealand, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ (formerly EPPO Alert List) is associated with several diseases on Fragaria ananassa (strawberry), Solanum tuberosum (potato), S. pseudocapsicum, Apium graveolens (celery), Rubus hybrids (boysenberry), Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Phormium tenax, Cordyline australis, Coprosma robusta, C. macrocarpa. So far, the only known vector of this pathogen was Zeoliarus atkinsoni (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), a species considered to be monophagous on Phormium spp. Recent studies have shown that Zeoliarus oppositus, a polyphagous species, is also a vector of ‘Ca. Phytoplama australiense’ (Winks et al., 2014).
Recent studies conducted in the USA have demonstrated that Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is able to transmit Little cherry virus 2 (Ampelovirus – EU Annexes) to sweet cherry (Prunus avium) (Mekuria et al., 2013).
Bascón J, Castillo S, Borrero C, Orta S, Gata A, Avilés M (2014) First report of chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica in a chestnut orchard in Andalusia (Southern Spain). Plant Disease 98(2), 283-284.
Bastas KK, Sahin F (2014) First report of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on meadow-sweet (Spirea prunifolia) in Turkey. Plant Disease 98(1), p 153.
Bobev SG, van Vaerenbergh J, Maes M (2014) First report of Dickeya dianthicola causing blackleg on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Bulgaria. Plant Disease 98(2), p 275.
Cho IS, Choi GS, Choi SK, Seo EY, Lim HS (2014) First report of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus infecting sweet cherry trees in Korea. Plant Disease 98(1), p 164.
Duarte LML, Alexandre MAV, Gobatto D, Kitajima EW, Harakava R (2014) First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis on Russell prairie gentian in Brazil. Plant Disease 98(2), 285-286.
Guzmán F, Giolitti F, Fernández F, Nome C, Lenardon S, Conci L (2014) Identification and molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with sunflower in Argentina. European Journal of Plant Pathology 138(4), 679-683.
Kozłowski MW, Legutowska H (2014) The invasive flea beetle Luperomorpha xanthodera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), potentially noxious to ornamental plants – first record in Poland. Journal of Plant Protection Research 54(1), 106-107.
Ma W, Liang M, Guan L, Xu M, Wen X, Deng X, Chen J (2014) Population structures of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Southern China. Phytopathology 104(2), 158-162.
Martínez, RT, Poojari S, Tolin SA, Cayetano X, Naidu RA (2014) First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus in peppers and tomato in the Dominican Republic. Plant Disease 98(1), 163-164.
Mekuria TA, Smith TJ, Beers E, Watson GW, Eastwell KC (2013) First report of transmission of Little cherry virus 2 to sweet cherry by Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Plant Disease 97(6), p 851.
Munyaneza JE, Sengoda VG, Aguilar E, Bextine B (2014) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on pepper in Honduras. Plant Disease 98(2), p 154.
Pan H, Chu D, Yan W, Su Q, Liu B, Wang S, Wu QJ, Xie W, Jiao X, Li R, Yang N, Yang X, Xu BY, Brown JK, Zhou XG, Zhang YJ (2012) Rapid spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China is aided differentially by two invasive whiteflies. PLoS ONE 7(4), e34817. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034817
Shi J, Pagliaccia D, Morgan R, Qiao Y, Pan S, Vidalakis G, Ma W (2014) Novel diagnosis for citrus stubborn disease by detection of a Spiroplasma citri-secreted protein. Phytopathology 104(2), 188-195.
Yang ZQ, Cao LM, Zhang YL, Wang XY, Zhan MK (2014) A new egg parasidoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), with notes on its biology. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(2), 407-412.
Winks CJ, Andersen MT, Charles JG, Beever RE (2014) Identification of Zeoliarus oppositus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) as a vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’. Plant Disease 98(1), 10-15.