New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
During summer 2012, a sudden leaf and twig blight disease was observed throughout the Northern forests of Iran on boxwood (Buxus sempervirens subsp. hyrcana). Morphological and molecular methods confirmed the presence of Cylindrocladium buxicola (formerly EPPO Alert List) in diseased plant material collected from the Guilan and Mazandaran provinces (Mirabolfathy et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2012 in Northern forests.
Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (Betaflexiridae, CNRMV - formerly EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time in South America from Chile. In October 2011, CNRMV was detected in leaf samples collected from 21 sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. ‘Bing’) from Libertador General Bernardo O-Higgins and Maule regions. CNRMV was detected in 10 samples, and another virus, Cherry green ring mottle virus, was detected in 6 samples (Fiore and Zamorano, 2013). Present, first found in 2011 on a small number of samples from sweet cherry trees.
Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae – EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in Guam. A single specimen was collected from lettuce growing at a farm in Mangilao in June 2013 (Moore and Bamba, 2014). Present, a single specimen was found in June 2013.
In Guam, a single specimen of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was collected in a hotel room and identified in October 2013. It is presumed that it was introduced with the luggage of a visitor to Guam from Boston, US (Moore, 2014). Present, a single specimen was identified in October 2013.
Heterodera zeae (EPPO Alert List) was first found in Afghanistan in 2009. During a survey carried out in the Nangharhar province, cysts and second stage juveniles of H. zeae were detected in soil samples collected from 5 wheat fields which had been previously cultivated with maize (Asghari et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2009 in the Nangharhar province.
In Indonesia, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in April 2013 in a field crop of Allium fistulosum in Cipendawa (Cianjur district), West Java province (Pappu and Rauf, 2013). Present first found in 2013 in Cianjur district (West Java).
During a survey conducted in March 2011, Columnea latent viroid (Pospiviroid, CLVd) was found in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) field crops in the municipality of Niono, Mali. Affected plants showed stunted growth, epinasty, and leaf chlorosis. In several fields, necrosis of leaf veins and stems was also observed (Batuman and Gilbertson, 2013). Present, first found in 2011 in tomato field crops.
- Detailed records
During a limited survey conducted from 2010 to 2012 in commercial vineyards and a germplasm repository, the presence of Arabis mosaic virus (Nepovirus, ArMV – EU Annexes) was detected in New York state (county of Ontario), USA (Celebi-Toprak, 2013).
In Poland, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2005 (2 locations in the voivodship of Podkarpacskie, Southeastern Poland). Since then the pest has continued to spread northwards. The official survey conducted in 2013 showed that D. virgifera virgifera occurred in 11 voivodeships located in the Southern part of Poland (Dolnośląskie, Lubelskie, Łódzkie, Małopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Śląskie, Świętokrzyskie, Wielkopolskie) (NPPO of Poland, 2013).
In Florida (US), a severe outbreak of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara obducens (formerly EPPO Alert List) was observed on Impatiens walleriana during winter 2012. The disease was observed in several counties (Broward, Collier, Hendry, Hillsborough, Manatee, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach), and its incidence reached nearly 100% in many affected landscape plantings (Palmateer et al., 2013).
In Italy, Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) was detected in January 2012 during a survey for postharvest diseases on stored apples (Malus domestica cvs. ‘Gala’ and ‘Pink Lady’) in Emilia-Romagna (Martini et al., 2013).
- New host plants
During summers 2008 and 2010, leaf and shoot blight, wilting of tips of young shoots, and cankers with brown discoloration on twigs were observed in 6 plants of Rosa canina in Ereğli district (Konya province, Central Anatolia region), Turkey. The presence of Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 List) was confirmed in these diseased plants (Bastas et al., 2013).
A real-time PCR assay has been developed in the USA for the early detection of Anisogramma anomala (EPPO A1 List) (Molnar et al., 2013).
Asghari R, Pourjam E, Heydari R, Tanha Maafi Z, Latifi AM (2013) First report of corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Afghanistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 8, 93-96.
Bastas KK, Sahin F, Atasagun R (2013) First report of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on rosehip (Rosa canina) in Turkey. Plant Disease 97(12), p 1652.
Batuman O, Gilbertson RL (2013) First report of Columnea latent viroid (CLVd) in tomato in Mali. Plant Disease 97(5), 692-693.
Celebi-Toprak, Thompson JR, Perry KL, Fuchs M (2013) Arabis mosaic virus in grapevines in New York State. Plant Disease 97(6), p 849.
Fiore N, Zamorano A (2013) First report of Cherry green ring mottle virus and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in Chile and South America. Plant Disease 97(8), 1122-1123.
Martini C, Spadoni A, Mari M (2013) First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on apple in Italy. Plant Disease 97(5), p 689.
Mirabolfathy M, Ahangaran Y, Lombard L, Crous PW (2013) Leaf blight of Buxus sempervirens in Northern forests of Iran caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata. Plant Disease 97(8), 1121-1122.
Molnar TJ, Walsh E, Capik JM, Sathuvalli V, Mehlenbacher SA, Rossman AY, Zhang N (2013) A real-time PCR assay for early detection of Eastern Filbert blight. Plant Disease 97(6), 813-818.
Moore A, Bamba J (2014) Spotted cucumber beetle (Southern corn rootworm) Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Guam New Invasive Species Alert no. 2014-02, 2 pp. http://guaminsects.net/anr/sites/default/files/spotted
Moore A (2014) Brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stal 1855) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Guam New Invasive Species Alert no. 2014-01, 2 pp. http://guaminsects.net/anr/sites/default/files/brownMarmoratedStinkBug.pdf
NPPO of Poland (2013-12).
Palmateer AJ, Lopez P, Seijo TE, Peres NAR (2013) Severe outbreak of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara obducens on Impatiens walleriana in Florida. Plant Disease 97(5), p 687.
Pappu HR, Rauf A (2013) First report of Iris yellow spot virus infecting green onion in Indonesia. Plant Disease 97(12), p 1665.