First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Slovenia
In Slovenia, the presence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO A2 List) was discovered in early summer 2013. The bacterium was found during an official detection survey carried out in the endangered area of Primorska (Istra, Vipavska dolina, Goriška Brda - Western Slovenia) where kiwifruit is grown. Kiwifruit orchards in Vipavska dolina, Goriška Brda and Slovenska Istra were visually inspected and symptomatic material was sampled. The following species and cultivars were inspected:
- A. deliciosa cv. 'Hayward' (prevalent in production of kiwi fruits in Slovenia), cvs. 'Tomuri', 'Green light' and 'Jenny'
- A. chinensis cvs. 'Soreli' and 'Delen'
- A. arguta cvs. 'Issai' and 'Weiki'.
Samples collected from 2 kiwifruit orchards (A. deliciosa cv. ‘Hayward’) in Vipavska dolina tested positive for P. syringae pv. actinidiae. During this official survey, no other infected Actinidia spp. plants were identified. It is noted that there are no kiwifruit nurseries within a radius of 4 km around the infected orchards.
The identity of the bacterium was confirmed by the official bacteriological laboratory of the National Institute of Biology (NIB) according to the draft EPPO protocol (isolation on selective medium, PCRs, LOPAT, pathogenicity tests). These results were also confirmed by the French reference laboratory (Anses, Angers) which determined that the two studied isolates belonged to biovar 3 (a highly virulent biovar of P. syringae pv. actinidiae). It is thought that the disease was introduced into Slovenia in the preceding years via imports of infected plants for planting, and was then spread by agricultural machinery. In the infected orchards, many plants showed symptoms of wilting, shoot dieback and some bacterial oozing. Pictures can be viewed on the National Institute of Biology and Slovenian NPPO websites:
Phytosanitary measures are being implemented in accordance with the Commission Decision 2012/756/EU.
The pest status of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Slovenia is officially declared as: Present, subject to official control.
NPPO of Slovenia (2014-01).
Commission Implementing Decision (2012/756/EU) of 5 December 2012 as regards measures to prevent the introduction into and the spread within the Union of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Takikawa, Serizawa, Ichikawa, Tsuyumu and Goto. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ