New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Bois noir, the grapevine yellows associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, has been recorded for the first time in Jordan. The pathogen was detected during a survey carried out in August and October 2012 in vineyards showing typical symptoms of grapevine yellows (leaf discoloration and curling, berry shrivelling and irregular maturation of wood). ‘Ca. P. solani’ was also detected in bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) growing in infected vineyards. Further studies will be carried out to investigate the role of Hyalesthes obsoletus in the disease transmission in Jordan (Salem et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2012.
In Pakistan, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time during a survey conducted in onion crops (Allium cepa) from March to May 2012. This survey had been initiated because suspect symptoms had been observed on bulb and seed onions grown in farmers’ fields in Faisalabad, Nankana, Sheikhupura and Sialkot districts of Punjab (Iftikhar et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2012 in onion crops in Punjab.
In Ukraine, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) has recently been found in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (1 ha) and the Odessa region (8 ha) (Fedorenko ; Pylypenko, 2012). Present, under official control.
The Asian soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi (formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Puerto Rico in February 2011 (Estévez de Jensen et al., 2013). Present, no details.
In February 2013, single and double flowered impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) affected by downy mildew were observed in nurseries and in the wild in central Taiwan. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of Plasmopara obducens (formerly EPPO Alert List) (Shen et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2013 in central Taiwan.
In Japan, Plasmopara obducens (formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in June 2010 on Impatiens walleriana plants in a glasshouse located in the Yamagata prefecture. In March 2012, it was also detected in a plastic tunnel nursery in Shimane prefecture (Satou et al., 2013). Present, first detected in 2010 in Yamagata prefecture and again in 2012 in Simane prefecture.
- Detailed records
Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected in October 2013 in the city and the national park of Sotchi (Krasnodar), Southern Russia. It is suspected that the pest was introduced with infested boxwood plants (Buxus spp.) imported for the landscaping of the Olympic village. Previously, C. perspectalis was only known to occur in the Russian Far East (Federal Forestry Agency, 2014).
In China, Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in fruit samples collected from peach orchards (Prunus persica) in the provinces of Gansu, Hubei and Yunnan (Yin et al., 2013).
In Brazil, Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2006 near Sumaré, São Paulo State. Soon after, the virus was also found in the main tomato-producing regions of Brazil (states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Goías, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and Distrito Federal). Recent genetic studies indicated that ToCV outbreaks in Brazil result from a single and recent introduction, most probably via infected vegetative material originating from Mediterranean countries (Barbosa et al., 2013).
In the USA, Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) was detected in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soybean (Glycine max) crops in North Carolina (Ye et al., 2013).
In the USA, isolated outbreaks of Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) had occasionally been found in the past. As of December 2013, PSTVd has been eradicated in all potato-producing states. The isolated outbreaks recently detected in glasshouse tomatoes (California and North Carolina – see EPPO RS 2011/154 and 2013/087) have also been eradicated (pers. comm. with Christina Devorshak, USDA-APHIS, 2013-12).
The pest status of Potato spindle tuber viroid in the USA is officially declared as: Eradicated.
- New host plants
In California (US), Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae - camphor tree) has been shown to be a host plant of Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List). The pathogen was detected in samples which had been collected from urban trees located in Mill Valley (Marin county) and nursery trees (Sacramento county). Diseased trees showed branch dieback and decline, shoot blight, as well as patchy and irregular cankers on branches. Nursery plants showed reddish leaves with small necrotic spots surrounded by green halos (Rooney-Latham et al., 2013).
In Brazil, downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii (EU Annexes) has been detected since winter 2009, on Gerbera jamesonii grown in an experimental glasshouse of the University of Viçosa (state of Minas Gerais). This is the first documented report of P. halstedii on Gerbera jamesonii (Duarte et al., 2013).
A new diagnostic method using the loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) has been developed to detect Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List). The authors considered that this method has the potential to provide an easy, one-step test for a rapid identification of this bacterium (Yasuhara-Bell et al., 2013).
A new protocol for a rapid DNA isolation from Bactericera cockerelli (psyllid vector of potato zebra chip disease - EPPO A1 List) has been developed in the USA. This protocol can be used directly with DNA-based methods (conventional and loop-mediated PCRs) for the detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, the causal agent of potato zebra chip disease. It is expected that this protocol can also be used for the detection of other Liberibacter species in their psyllid vectors, in particular for ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ in Diaphorina citri (Lévy et al., 2013).
Barbosa JC, Rezende JAM, Filho AB (2013) Low genetic diversity suggests a single introduction and recent spread of Tomato chlorosis virus in Brazil. Journal of Phytopathology 161(11-12), 884-886.
Duarte LL, Choi YJ, Barreto RW (2013) First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on Gerbera jamesonii in Brazil. Plant Disease 97(10), p 1382.
Estévez de Jensen C, Harmon CL, Vitoreli A (2013) First record of Asian soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Puerto Rico. Plant Disease 97(10), p 1378.
Fedorenko V, Pylypenko L (2012) Quarantine and invasive species in Ukraine. Progress in Plant Protection 52(4), 1156-1164.
Federal Forestry Agency. Centre of Forest Health of Krasnodar region. [Boxwood moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) introduced into the relict forests of the Krasnodar region]. http://czl23.ru/news.php?extend.102 (in Russian).
Iftikhar R, Bag S, Ashfaq M, Pappu HR (2013) First report of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Pakistan. Plant Disease 97(11), p 1517.
Lévy L, Hancock J, Ravindran A, Gross D, Tamborindeguy C, Pierson E (2013) Methods for rapid and effective PCR-based detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacerum’ from the insect vector Bactericera cockerelli: streamlining the DNA extraction/purification process. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(3), 1440-1445.
Personal communication with Christina Devorshak (USDA-APHIS, 2013-12).
Rooney-Latham S, Honeycutt E, Ochoa J, Grünwald NJ, Blomquist CL (2013) First report of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) as a host of Phytophthora ramorum. Plant Disease 97(10), 1377-1378.
Salem NM, Quaglino F, Abdeen A, Casati P, Bulgari D, Alma A, Bianco PA (2013) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ strains associated with grapevine bois noir in Jordan. Plant Disease 97(11), p 1505.
Satou M, Sugawara K, Nagashima S, Tsukamoto T, Matsushita Y (2013) Downy mildew of busy lizzie caused by Plasmopara obducens in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology 79(3), 205-208.
Shen YM, Huang JH, Liu HL (2013) First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara obducens on impatiens in Taiwan. Plant Disease 97(11), 1512-1513.
Yasuhara-Bell J, Kubota R, Jenkins DM, Alvarez AM (2013) Loop-mediated amplification of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis micA gene is highly specific. Phytopathology 103(12), 1220-1226.
Ye WM, Koenning SR, Zhuo K, Liao JL (2013) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on cotton and soybean in North Carolina, United States. Plant Disease 97(9), p 1262.
Yin LF, Chen SN, Yuan NN, Zhai Lx, Li GQ, Luo CX (2013) First report of peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in Central and Western China. Plant Disease 97(9), 1255-1256.