EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 11 - 2013 Num. article: 2013/251

The German lists of invasive alien plants

The German-Austrian black list information system (GABLIS) assigns species to the ‘Black List’, ‘Grey List’ and ‘White List’ of alien species. This system has been used to create lists for Germany. The ‘Black List’ is divided into a ‘Warning List’ of invasive animals and plants not occurring in Germany, an ‘Action list’ of species with limited distribution and a ‘Management list’ of widely distributed invasive species. German and Austrian scientists have recently assigned species from different taxonomic groups to some of these lists.

Black List
The ‘Warning List’ contains 10 plants not occurring in Germany: Akebia quinata (Lardizabalaceae, EPPO Observation List of Invasive Alien Plants), Baccharis halimifolia (Asteraceae, EPPO A2 List), Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae, EPPO A2 List), Fallopia sachalinensis ‘Igniscum’ (Polygonaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae, EPPO A2 List), Heracleum sosnowskyi (Apiaceae, EPPO A2 List), Ludwigia peploides (Onagraceae, EPPO A2 List), Polygonum perfoliatum (Polygonaceae, EPPO A2 List), Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae, EPPO A2 List) and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae).

The Action list contains 10 plants which have a limited distribution in Germany: Crassula helmsii (Crassulaceae, EPPO A2 List), Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Apiaceae, EPPO A2 List), Lagarosiphon major (Hydrocharitaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Ludwigia grandiflora (Onagraceae, EPPO A2 List), Ludwigia x kentiana (Onagraceae), Lysichiton americanus (Araceae, EPPO Observation List of IAP), Myriophyllum aquaticum (Haloragaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Myriophyllum heterophyllum (Haloragaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Rhododendron ponticum (Ericaceae, EPPO Observation list of IAP) and Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae),

The Management list of species which are widespread in Germany contains 28 species: Acer negundo (Sapindaceae), Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Azolla filiculoides (Salviniaceae, EPPO Observation list of IAP), Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae), Elodea canadensis (Hydrocharitaceae), Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Epilobium ciliatum (Onagraceae), Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis and F. x bohemica (Polygonaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Oleaceae), Galeobdolon argentatum (Lamiaceae), Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Lupinus polyphyllus (Fabaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Pinus strobus (Pinaceae), Populus canadensis (Salicaceae), Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae), Quercus rubra (Fagaceae), Robinia pseudacacia (Fabaceae), Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae), Sedum spurium (Crassulaceae), Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP), Spartina anglica (Poaceae), Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Asteraceae), Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (Asteraceae) and Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae).

Grey List
The ‘Grey List’ of potentially invasive alien species contains 42 plant species: Allium paradoxum (Amaryllidaceae), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP), Amorpha fruticosa (Fabaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Artemisia verlotiorum (Asteraceae), Asclepias syriaca (Asclepiadaceae), Bidens frondosa (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP), Buddleia davidii (Scrophulariaceae, EPPO List of IAP), Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae), Claytonia perfoliata (Montiaceae), Cotoneaster dammeri, C. divaricatus and C. horizontalis (Rosaceae), Dianthus giganteus (Caryophyllaceae), Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae), Echinops sphaerocephalus (Asteraceae), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Elaeagnaceae), Gleditsia triacanthos (Caesalpinioideae), Helianthus tuberosus (Asterceae), Impatiens balfourii, I. edgeworthii (Balsaminaceae), I. glandulifera (Balsaminaceae, EPPO List of IAP) and I. parviflora (Balsaminaceae), Lonicera henryi and L. tatarica (Caprifoliaceae), Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae), Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae), Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae, EPPO Alert List), Paulownia tomentosa (Paulowniaceae), Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae), Pinus nigra (Pinaceae), Pistia stratiotes (Araceae, EPPO List of IAP), Prunus laurocerasus (Rosaceae), Rhus typhina (Anacardiaceae), Rubus armeniacus (Rosaceae), Rudbeckia laciniata (Asteraceae), Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae, EPPO List of IAP), Symphoricarpos albus (Caprifoliaceae), Telekia speciosa (Asteraceae), Vaccinium atlanticum (Ericaceae), Vallisneria spiralis (Hydrocharitaceae) and Viburnum rhytidophyllum (Adoxaceae).

For the following plants, there is an uncertainty about their negative impacts, these species were therefore put on the Grey List: Acer rufinerve (Sapindaceae), Araujia sericifera (Apocynaceae, EPPO Observation List of IAP), Paspalum paspalodes (Poaceae) and Sorghum x almum (Poaceae).

The ‘White List’ is in progress.

Data sheets are available for all these species. The full texts can be downloaded (in German only):
Black and Grey Lists: http://bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/skript352.pdf
Warning List: http://bfn.de/fileadmin/MDB/documents/service/skript331.pdf


Uwe Starfinger, Julius Kühn Institute, Germany, E-mail: ;uwe.starfinger@jki.bund.de
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