New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In 2011, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Tajikistan in onion fields (Allium cepa) near Dushanbe (Alabi et al., 2012). Present, first found in 2011 near Dushanbe.
In November 2011, severe blight and leaf shedding were observed on boxwood (Buxus sempervirens) in the Black Sea region, Turkey. Laboratory analysis of samples of leaves, branches and roots collected from the provinces of Trabzon and Artvin confirmed the presence of Cylindrocladium buxicola (formerly EPPO Alert List) (Akili et al., 2012). Present, first found in 2011 in the Black Sea region.
In Italy, the presence of Tobacco ringpost virus (Nepovirus, TRSV - EPPO A2 List) was detected in March 2011 in plants of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) growing in a private garden near Salerno (Campania region). Affected plants showed chlorotic spots and rings on both leaf surfaces. According to the authors, this is the first time that TRSV is reported in cultivated plants in Italy. It is recalled that TRSV had been intercepted in the 1980s in imported gladiolus bulbs (Sorrentino et al., 2012). Present, few records.
During a survey carried out in Portugal, the presence of Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in November 2006 on Viburnum spp. (Jesus Gomes ; Amaro, 2008). Present, no details.
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia during summer 2009 and 2010 in 4 glasshouses of capsicum (Capsicum annuum cv. ‘California Wonder’) in the region of Al-Kharj (Ibrahim ; Al-Saleh, 2012). Present, found in a small number of glasshouses in the region of Al-Kharj.
Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first found in 2 urban parks in the province of Napoli (Campania region), Italy. It was observed on plants of Quercus ilex, Viburnum tinus, Fraxinus ornus and Celtis australis showing symptoms of withering on twigs and shoots of small diameter (NPPO of Italy, 2011). This was also the first record of this pest in Europe. More recent studies have showed that the introduction of X. compactus on Q. ilex was followed by a severe outbreak of Fusarium solani, a fungus which is vectored by X. compactus (Bosso et al., 2012). Present, first found in 2011 in 2 urban parks (Campania).
- Detailed records
In China, Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert List) occurs in several provinces including Hebei, Shandong and Zhejiang (Yan et al., 2013).
Ditylenchus dipsaci (EPPO A2 List) has been detected for the first time in Minnesota (US) on garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing stunting and chlorosis. The nematode was found in samples which had been collected from Morrison and Dakota counties during summer 2011, and from Carver county during summer 2012 (Mollov et al., 2012).
In October 2012, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List) was observed for the first time in Comunidad Valenciana, Spain. The pest was caught in the province of Valencia. No damage has been observed on fruit crops (Anonymous, 2013).
In Lithuania, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (Benyvirus, BNYVV – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2004 in the Sakiai region. A recent survey showed that BNYVV was still of limited distribution in the country, as it was only detected in the following regions: Sakiai, Kaunas and Panevézys (Zizyte et al., 2013).
Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) occurs in Maremma Regional Park, Toscana, Italy (Bracalini et al., 2013).
Tobacco ringspot virus (Nepovirus – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Oklahoma (US). It was detected in 2010 on several cucurbit crops (Cucumis melo, Cucurbita pepo, Citrullus lanatus). This confirms an old record of TRSV made in 1956 in Oklahoma on C. lanatus (Abdalla et al., 2012).
- New host plants
In December 2009, dieback symptoms were observed on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana trees growing in the vicinity of larch trees infected by Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List) in Somerset, United Kingdom. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of P. ramorum (EPPO Alert List) in these symptomatic trees. This is the first time that a natural infection of P. ramorum is reported on C. lawsoniana (Brasier and Webber, 2012).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) was found infecting Euphorbia punicea (Euphorbiaceae) in an ornamental nursery in Florida (US). Affected plants showed stunted growth and leaf yellowing. Commonly known as Jamaican poinsettia, E. punicea is an evergreen shrub with dark green leaves and flashy red bracts used for ornamental purposes (Han et al., 2012).
- New pests
Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) is a new virus tentatively assigned in the genus Tospovirus which was first found in Yunnan province, China. Severe symptoms have been observed on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum) crops in Yunnan since 2005. Affected plants showed concentric zoned ringspots on fruits and necrotic lesions on leaves. During studies carried out from 2008 to 2010, TZSV was also found affecting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in Guangxi province (Dong et al., 2008; Cai et al., 2011).
Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is considered to be a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. Affected plants show leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces. This virus was initially considered to be a member of the genus Curtovirus, but recent studies have concluded that it probably belongs to a distinct and new genus (within the Geminiviridae family) for which the name Bectivirus is proposed. BCTIV can also infect, but at low rate, spinach (Spinacia oleracea), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and several weed species (e.g. Datura stramonium). This virus is transmitted by Neoalitus (Circulifer) haematoceps (Soleimani et al., 2013).
A key for the morphological identification of larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - EPPO A2 List), A. glabripennis (EPPO A1 List) and Psacothea hilaris (formerly EPPO Alert List) has been published. It contains numerous and detailed morphological pictures of larvae and aims to distinguish these three exotic species from the closely related species of the native fauna of Europe (Pennacchio et al., 2012).
A PCR test has been developed in Italy to confirm the identity of Anoplophora chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - EPPO A2 List) in frass collected from infested trees or their immediate vicinity. With this method, it is no longer necessary to damage host plants to try to find insect specimens. It is considered that this new diagnostic tool is particularly useful during delimiting surveys for eradication/containment programmes, as well as during import inspections of traded material (Strangi et al., 2012).
A real-time PCR assay has been developed for the detection and identification of the two formae speciales of Melampsora medusae (EPPO A2 List): M. medusae f.sp. deltoidae and M. medusae f.sp. tremuloidae on infected poplar leaves (Boutigny et al., 2013).
A PCR method has been developed and used in routine analysis for 10 years in France for the detection and identification of poplar rusts that are occurring in Europe: Melampsora larici-populina, M. allii-populina and M. medusae f.sp. deltoidae (EPPO A2 List). It is noted that during these studies M. medusae f.sp. deltoidae has not been detected in commercial poplar nurseries in France (Husson et al., 2013).
A LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification) test has been developed for the detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (EPPO A2 List) (Bühlmann et al., 2013).
A new real-time PCR test has been developed in New Zealand for the detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (EPPO A1 List for Solanaceae haplotypes) in potato tubers (Beard et al., 2013).
Since the discovery of phytoplasmas, the conclusive proof of their pathogenicity (verification of Koch’s postulates) has been lacking because all attempts to culture them on artificial growing media had failed. Contaldo et al. (2012) have recently published the first demonstration of the axenic culture of phytoplasmas on artificial growing media. Under defined conditions, specific commercial media allowed the cultivation of phytoplasma colonies. Colonies obtained were similar in shape and dimensions with those of mycoplasmas.
In May 2013, USDA-APHIS officially announced the eradication of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO A1 List) from Manhattan and Staten Island in New York (US). In 2011, the pest had also been eradicated from the area of Islip, New York (NAPPO, 2013).
Abdalla OA, Bruton BD, Fish WW (2012) First confirmed report of Tobacco ringspot virus in cucurbit crops in Oklahoma. Plant Disease 96(11), p 1705.
Akilli S, Katircioglu YZ, Zor K, Maden S (2012) First report of box blight caused by Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. New Disease Reports 25, 23. http://doi
Alabi OJ, Saidov N, Muniappan R, Naidu RA (2012) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onion in Tajikistan. New Disease Reports 26, 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.026.028
Anonymous (2013) Incidencia de plagas y enfermedades en las Comunidades Autonomas en 2012. Phytoma-España no.249, 52-63.
Beard SS, Pitman AR, Kraberger S, Scott IAW (2013) SYBR Green real-time quantitative PCR for the specific detection and quantification of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in field samples from New Zealand. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136(1), 203-215.
Bosso L, Senatore M, Varlese R, Ruocco M, Garonna AP, Bonanomi G, Mazzoleni S, Cristinzio G (2012) Severe outbreak of Fusarium solani on Quercus ilex vectored by Xylosandrus compactus. Journal of Plant Pathology 94(suppl.), S4.99.
Boutigny AL, Guinet C, Vialle A, Hamelin R, Frey P, Ioos R (2013) A sensitive real-time PCR assay for the detection of the two Melampsora medusae formae speciales on infected poplar leaves. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136(3), 433-441.
Bracalini M, Benedettelli S, Croci F, Terreni P, Tiberi R, Panzavolta T (2013) Cone and seed pests of Pinus pinea: assessment and characterization of damage. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(1), 229-234.
Brasier C, Webber J (2012) Natural stem infection of Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. New Disease Reports 25, 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.025.026
Bühlmann A, Pothier JF, Tomlinson JA, Frey JE, Boonham N, Smits THM, Duffy B (2013) Genomics-informed design of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni at the intraspecific level. Plant Pathology 62(2), 475-484.
Cai JH, Qin BX, Wei XP, Huang J, Zhou WL, Lin BS, Yao M, Hu ZZ, Feng ZK, Tao XR (2011) Molecular Identification and Characterization of Tomato zonate spot virus in tobacco in Guangxi, China. Plant Disease 95(11), p 483.
Contaldo N, Bertaccini A, Paltrinieri S, Windsor HM, Windsor GD (2012) Axenic culture of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 51(3), 607-617.
Dong JH, Cheng XF, Yin YY, Fang Q, Ding M, Li TT, Zhang LZ, Su XX, McBeath JH, Zhang ZK (2008) Characterization of Tomato zonate spot virus, A new Tospovirus species in China. Archives of Virology 153, 855-864.
Han H, Brito JA, Dickson DW (2012) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting Euphorbia punicea in Florida. Plant Disease 96(11), p 1706.
Husson C, Ioos R, Andrieux A, Frey P (2013) Development and use of new sensitive molecular tools for diagnosis and detection of Melampsora rusts on cultivated poplar. Forest Pathology 43, 1-11.
Ibrahim Y, Al-Saleh M (2012) First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease 96(11), p 1690.
Jesus Gomes de M, Amaro PT (2008) [Occurrence of Phytophthora ramorum in Portugal on Viburnum spp.]. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 105-111 (in Portuguese).
Mollov DS, Subbotin SA, Rosen C (2012) First report of Ditylenchus dipsaci on garlic in Minnesota. Plant Disease 96(11), p 1706.
NAPPO Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports. USA (2013-05-14) Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) eradicated from Manhattan and Staten Island, New York. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=547
NPPO of Italy (2011-09).
Pennacchio F, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Jucker C, Allegro G, Roversi PF (2012) A key for the identification of larvae of Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis and Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera Cerambycidae Lamiinae) in Europe. Redia 95, 57-65.
Soleimani R, Matic S, Taheri H, Behjatnia SAA, Vecchiati M, Izadpanah K, Accotto GP (2012) The unconventional geminivirus Beet curly top Iran virus: satisfying Koch's postulates and determining vector and host range. Annals of Applied Biology 162(2), 174–181.
Sorrentino R, Alioto D, Russo M, Rubino L (2012) Presence of Tobacco ringspot virus in Aeonium. Journal of Plant Pathology 94(suppl.), S4.103.
Strangi A, Sabbatini Peverieri G, Roversi PF (2012) Managing outbreaks of the citrus long-horned beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) in Europe: molecular diagnosis of plant infestation. Pest Management Science 69(5), 627-634.
Yan S, Yang Y, Wang T, Zhao T, Schaad NW (2013) Genetic diversity of Acidovorax citrulli in China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136(1), 171-181.
Zizyte M, Valkonen J, Staniulis J (2013) Characterization of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus infecting sugar beet in Lithuania. Journal of Plant Pathology 95(1), 211-216.