EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 04 - 2013 Num. article: 2013/092

Cardiospermum grandiflorum in Macaronesia


In Macaronesia, Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae, EPPO Alert List) is reported as invasive in Gran Canaria, La Gomera, Tenerife (Islas Canarias, ES), and Madeira (PT). It is also recorded as established in La Palma (Islas Canarias).
In Madeira, it is recorded in vegetated sea cliffs with endemic flora of the Macaronesian coasts (Habitat 1250 according to the EU Habitats Directive categorization), in thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub (Habitat 5330), in siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation (Habitat 8220) and in Macaronesian laurel forest (Habitat 9360, which is a protected habitat according to the Habitats Directive).
In Islas Canarias, it is recorded in thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub (Habitat 5330) and siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation (Habitat 8220).
The species occurs in protected areas (Natural Park of Madeira, Site of community interest of Pináculo and Cuenca Benchijigua-GaurimiarIt and the Rural Park of Anaga). It is also recorded on cultivated land and anthropogenous vegetation, and in urban areas in Madeira and Islas Canarias and in abandoned fields and degraded natural habitats in Madeira.

C. grandiflorum is reported to change the structure, abundance and succession in the habitats in which it occurs, to compete with other species, and to facilitate invasions of other invasive alien species. The following endemic species in Islas Canarias are considered to be affected by C. grandiflorum: Aeonium urbicum (Crassulaceae), Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Argyranthemum frutescens (Asteraceae), Artemisia thuscula (Asterceae), Ceballosia fruticosa (Boraginaceae), Echium leucophaeum (Boraginaceae), Euphorbia canariensis (Euphorbiaceae), Euphorbia lamarckii (Euphorbiaceae, listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae), Lavandula canariensis (Lamiaceae), Rubia fruticosa (Rubiaceae), Rumex lunaria (Polygonaceae).
In Madeira, the following endemic species are considered to be affected by C. grandiflorum: Aeonium glandulosum (Crassulaceae), Aeonium glutinosum (Crassulaceae), Crambe fruticosa (Brassicaceae), Erica platycodon subsp. maderincola (Ericaceae), Euphorbia piscatoria (Euphorbiaceae), Genista tenera (Fabaceae), Helichrysum melaleucum (Asteraceae), Matthiola maderensis (Brassicaceae), Olea;europaea subsp. maderensis (Oleaceae), Sedum nudum (Crassulaceae) and Sinapidendron angustifolium (Brassicaceae). In addition, in Madeira, the following species included in the Habitats Directive are also affected by C. grandiflorum: Chamaemeles coriacea (Rosaceae), Convolvulus massonii (Convolvulaceae), Dracaena draco (Asparagaceae), Jasminum azoricum (Oleaceae), Echium candicans (Boraginaceae), Musschia aurea (Campanulaceae), Maytenus umbellata (Celastraceae) and Sideroxylon mirmulans (Sapotaceae).


Sources

Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm

EIONET Website, Reference portal for Natura 2000 – Annex 1.
http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Natura_2000/reference_portal

Silva L, Ojeda Land E ; Rodríguez Luengo JL (Eds.) (2008) Invasive Terrestrial Flora and Fauna of Macaronesia. TOP 100 in Azores, Madeira and Canaries. ARENA, Ponta Delgada, 546 pp.