Assessment of the ecological effects of Mimulus guttatus in the Netherlands
An assessment of the ecological risk that Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae) represents for the Netherlands has been performed following the Belgian Invasive Species Environmental Impact Assessment (ISEIA).
M. guttatus is a semi aquatic plant originating from the western part of North America, from Mexico up to Canada. This plant is traded as an ornamental, as well as via wildflower seed mixtures. Within the EPPO region, it is recorded in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark (including Faroe Island), Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland. It is also recorded in Australia (Tasmania, Victoria) and in New Zealand. The species is widespread in the Netherlands and occurs in moist meadows and along riverbanks, including in sites that are in winter. The plant reproduces both vegetatively through fragmented parts and sexually through seeds. Seeds and fragments are spread by water, the numerous seeds produced can also be transported by wind and animals (deer, birds, cattle). The probability of spread of the species was therefore assessed as high. Although the species has been observed to colonize high conservation value habitats listed in the Habitat Directive (92/43/EEC), no negative effects on native species have been reported as the species has a limited competitive ability, and no impacts on ecosystem functioning could be highlighted in the Netherlands.
As a consequence, M. guttatus is assessed as representing a low ecological risk, and no management measures are recommended in the Netherlands, in particular considering the wide distribution of the species.
Koopman KR, Beringen R, Collas FPL, Matthews Odé JB, Pot R, Sparrius LB, van Valkenburg JLCH, Verbrugge LNH ; Leuven RSEW (2012) Knowledge document for risk analysis of the non-native Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) in the Netherlands. Pp 43.
Matthews J, Beringen R, Collas FPL, Koopman KR, Odé B, Pot R, Sparrius LB, van Valkenburg JLCH, Verbrugge LNH ; Leuven RSEW (2012) Risk analysis of the non-native Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) in the Netherlands. Pp 29.
The Belgian Invasive Species Environmental Impact Assessment (ISEIA) protocol