EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 03 - 2013 Num. article: 2013/056

First report of Pseudococcus viburni in Germany


The NPPO of Germany recently informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first record of Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on its territory. In Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg), 7 catalpa trees (Catalpa bignonioides) in a car park were found to be infested by P. viburni in October 2012. In 2011, similar mealybugs had been found on these trees but could not be identified morphologically (no adults could be collected at that time). The source of this infestation is unknown. Infested trees and surrounding plants have been destroyed, and inspections on other plants are continuing in this car park. An express PRA has been conducted and concluded that P. viburni may present a medium risk to Germany and the European Union. The overall uncertainty of the PRA was estimated as medium due to the general lack of information about the pest distribution and potential for spread under the German climatic conditions.
The pest status of Pseudococcus viburni in Germany is officially declared as: Transient, under eradication, in one area (in Baden-Württemberg).

EPPO note: P. viburni is a polyphagous species which can be found on most parts of its hosts including the main roots, fruit, leaves, stems, and under bark crevices. It attacks economically important crops such as: apple (Malus domestica), citrus, grapevine (Vitis vinifera), pear (Pyrus communis), pomegranate (Punica granatum), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), walnut (Juglans regia). This mealybug can also be found on many ornamental plants. In vineyards, P. viburni has been shown to transmit viruses (Grapevine virus A, Grapevine virus B, Grapevine leaf roll-associated virus 3). Information is generally lacking on the economic impact of P. viburni. It is generally considered as a minor pest but in some cases, control measures are necessary. For example, in the last decade, P. viburni has been causing damage in tomato glasshouses and apple orchards in France. This has triggered research on the possible use of parasitoids such as Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).
P. viburni is a cosmopolitan species which is thought to originate from South America. Due to some taxonomic confusion, both its origin and geographical distribution remain difficult to establish with certainty. It is currently considered that P. viburni belongs to the P.;maritimus complex, and that Dactylopius affinis, P. affinis, P. capensis, P. indicus, P. latipes, P. longispinus var. latipes, P. malacearum, P. nicotianae, P. obscurus are synonyms.
The geographical distribution given below has been summarized from ScaleNet:
EPPO region: Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy (including Sardegna, Sicilia), Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal (including Azores, Madeira), Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom (Channel Islands, England and Wales, Scotland).
Africa: Morocco, Saint Helena, South Africa, Zimbabwe.
Asia: Afghanistan, China, Indonesia (Java), Iran, Israel, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Sri Lanka.
North America: Canada (British Columbia, New Brunswick), Mexico, USA (Alabama, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin).
Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama.
South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo), Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Oceania: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia), New Zealand.

Sources

NPPO of Germany (2013-01).
Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Intercept Limited, Andover (GB), 686 pp.
Charles JG (2011) Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, in South America. BioControl 56(2), 155-161.
Garau R, Prota VA, Boscia D, Fiori M, Prota U (1995) Pseudococcus affinis Mask., new vector of grapevine trichoviruses A and B. Vitis 34(1), 67-68.
Golino DA, Sim ST, Gill R, Rowhani A (2002) California mealybugs can spread grapevine leafroll disease. California Agriculture 56(6), 196-201.
INTERNET
ScaleNet. Pseudococcus viburni. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Pseudococcusviburni.htm
Julius Khün-Institut. Express PRA on Pseudococcus viburni dated 2013-03-10 (in German). http://pflanzengesundheit.jki.bund.de/dokumente/upload/b3733_pseudococcus_viburni-express-pra.pdf
Siham M, Kreiter P (2009) Lutte contre Pseudococcus viburni en verger de pommier. Mise en place d’un réseau de lâcher d’auxiliaires. Infos-CTIFL no. 249, 38-42.