EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 02 - 2013 Num. article: 2013/044

Invasive alien plants in Israel


A new book on invasive alien plants in Israel by Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror has been published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. This book provides a full list of the 166 alien plants established in Israel, indicating the habitats and the climatic area in which they occur. Among those, 50 have been identified as representing a threat in Israel. For each of these 50 species a datasheet is provided and includes a description of the plant, pictures, history of introduction, biology and ecology, distribution in Israel and effects on native species. The EPPO Secretariat has summarized below the information that is provided for these 50 invasive alien plants about their origin, presence in the EPPO region, habitat and their situation in Israel.



Species
Origin
Presence in the EPPO region*
Habitat, situation in Israel
Acacia cyclops (Fabaceae)
SW-Aus.
CY, DZ, ES (incl. Canarias), IL, MA, PT (incl. Azores), TN
Mediterranean area; natural dry habitat; rare in IL
Acacia karroo (Fabaceae)
Trop. Af.
CY, ES, FR (incl. Corse), IL, IT (incl. Sardinia, Sicilia), MA, PT, TR
Mediterranean area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Acacia paradoxa (Fabaceae)
SE-Aus.
IL
Mediterranean area; disturbed rare habitats; very rare in IL
Acacia salicina (Fabaceae)
E-Aus.
IL
Desert area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats and urban environments; very common in IL
Acacia saligna (Fabaceae)
SW-Aus.
CY, DZ, ES (incl. Baleares, Canarias), FR (incl. Corse), GR, IL, IT (incl. Sardinia, Sicilia), JO, MA, PT (incl. Azores), TN, TR
Mediterranean and semi-arid areas; natural dry, natural moist, disturbed dry and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very common in IL
Acacia victoriae (Fabaceae)
Aus.
IL
Mediterranean and semi-arid areas; disturbed dry habitats; rare in IL
Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
As.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats and urban environments; common in IL
Ambrosia confertiflora (Asteraceae)
C-Am.
IL
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed dry habitats; very rare in IL
Atriplex holocarpa (Amaranthaceae)
Aus.
(Casual in BE), IL
Desert area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Azolla filiculoides (Salviniaceae, EPPO Observation List of IAP)
Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very rare in IL
Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
S-Af.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural dry habitat and urban environments; common in IL
Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae)
Trop. S-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert areas; natural moist, disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats and urban environments; very common in IL
Conyza canadensis (Asteraceae)
N-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert areas; natural moist, disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats and urban environments; very common in IL
Conyza sumatrensis (Asteraceae)
Trop. S-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert areas; natural moist, disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats; rare in IL
Cyperus flabelliformis (Cyperaceae)
Trop. Af.
ES (incl. Baleares, Canarias), FR (Corse), GR, IL, IT (incl. Sicilia), PT (incl. Azores, Madeira)
Mediterranean, semi-arid areas; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Cyperus odoratus (Cyperaceae)
Pan-Trop.
IL, RO
Mediterranean area; natural moist habitat; rare in IL
Datura stramonium (Solanaceae)
S-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert areas; disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats and urban environments; very common in IL
Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae)
Trop.
CY, IL
Mediterranean area; natural dry, disturbed dry habitats; rare in IL
Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae, EPPO A2 List)
S-Am.
ES, FR (Corse), IL, IT (Sardinia), JO, PT
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very rare in IL
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae)
Aus.
AL, CY, DZ, ES (incl. Canarias), GR, IL, IT (incl. Sicilia), MA, MT PT, TN, TR
Mediterranean, semi-arid areas; natural dry, natural moist, disturbed or artificial moist habitats; rare in IL
Ficus benghalensis (Moraceae)
Ind.
IL
Semi-arid area; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae)
Trop. Asia, Aus.
IL, IT (Sicilia)
Semi-arid area; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Ficus religiosa (Moraceae)
Trop. As.
IIL
Semi-arid area; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Asteraceae)
E N-Am
/
Mediterranean area; natural dry, disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae)
SE As.
IL, TN, TR
Mediterranean area; natural moist habitat; very rare in IL
Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)
Trop. S-Am.
ES (incl. Baleares, Canarias), FR (Corse), IL, IT (incl. Sicilia), PT (Azores, Madeira), TR
Mediterranean, desert areas; Natural dry, disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)
Aus., Trop. As.
AL, CY, ES (incl. Azores), FR, GR, HR, IL, IT (incl. Sicilia), JO, PT (Madeira), MA, MT, TN, TR
Mediterranean area; disturbed dry habitats and urban environment; common in IL
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Haloragaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
S-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very rare in IL
Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae)
S-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, desert areas; disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats, urban environment; very common in IL
Oenothera drummondii (Onagraceae)
Am.
ES, IL, MA
Mediterranean area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Oxalis pes-caprae (Oxalidaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
S-Af.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; disturbed dry, disturbed or artificial moist habitats, urban environment; common in IL
Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae)
Central ; Trop. S-Am.
CY, DZ, ES (Incl. Baleares, Canarias), GR, IL, IT (incl. Sicilia), MA
Mediterranean, semi-arid areas; natural moist, disturbed dry and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; common in IL
Paspalum distichum (Poaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; rare in IL
Pennisetum clandestinum (Poaceae)
E Trop. Af.
CY, DZ, ES (incl. Canarias), FR (Corse), GR (Crete), IL, MA, PT (Madeira), TN
Mediterranean, semi-arid areas; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; rare in IL
Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae)
N-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; rare in IL
Pinus brutia (Pinaceae)
Med, Temp. As.
Native in a part of the region
Mediterranean area; natural dry, disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Pistia stratiotes (Araceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Trop. S-Am.
ES (incl. Azores, Canarias), HU, IL, IT, PT
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very rare in IL
Populus alba (Salicaceae)
Eur. Temp. As.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae)
C. Am.
DZ, IL, JO, MA, TN
Semi-arid, desert areas; natural dry, disturbed dry habitats; very rare in IL
Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae)
Trop. Af.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert areas; natural moist, disturbed dry and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; common in IL
Robinia pseudo-acacia (Fabaceae)
Temp. N-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean area; disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae, EPPO List of IAP)
Trop. S-Am.
FR (Corse), IL, IT
Mediterranean area; natural moist habitats; very rare in IL
Schinus molle (Anacardiaceae)
Trop. S-Am.
ES (incl. Canarias), IL, IT, MT, PT (Madeira)
Mediterranean area; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats; rare in IL
Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae)
Trop. S-Am.
ES, IL, MT, PT
Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert areas; natural moist and disturbed dry habitats; rare in IL
Sesbania sesban (Fabaceae)
Trop. E Af.
IL
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; very rare in IL
Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae, EPPO A2 List)
S-Am.
AL, CS, CY, ES, FR, GR, HR, IL, IT (incl. Sardinia, Sicilia), MA, TN, TR
Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert areas; disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Verbesina encelioides (Asteraceae, EPPO Observation list of IAP)
N-Am.
ES, GB, IL
Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert areas; natural dry and disturbed dry habitats; common in IL
Washingtonia robusta (Arecaceae)
N-Am.
IL
Mediterranean area; natural moist and disturbed dry habitats, urban environment; common in IL
Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae)
N-Am.
Widespread
Mediterranean, semi-arid, desert areas; natural moist, disturbed dry and disturbed or artificial moist habitats; common in IL
* The presence of the species in the EPPO region has been checked against the DAISIE Database and the CABI Invasive Species Compendium and may not be exhaustive.

Some of these species are of limited distribution at the scale of the EPPO region, and may represent emerging invasive alien plants, in particular in the Mediterranean Basin:
  • Acacia spp. (Fabaceae) are recognized to be a major threat to Mediterranean countries. A.;paradoxa, A. salicina and A. victoriae are absent from the rest of the EPPO region and form dense stands displacing native species in Israel.
  • Ambrosia confertifolia (Asteraceae) is absent from the rest of the EPPO region. In Israel, it replaces the native vegetation, changes the ecosystem and is also a problem in cultivated fields and citrus groves. The species is recorded as a severe allergen according to the Pollen library.
  • Heterotheca subaxillaris (Asteraceae) is absent from the rest of the EPPO region. It invades coastal sands, outcompeting native species and transforming the habitat.
  • Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae) is reported as occurring in Algeria, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Morocco and Spain. In Israel it forms dense stands that displace native species.
  • Pennisetum clandestinum (Poaceae) is reported in Algeria, Cyprus, Spain, Corse (France), Crete (Greece), Morocco, Madeira (Portugal) and Tunisia. In Israel it forms dense mats displacing native plants.
  • Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) is recorded in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. In Israel, the species is reported to significantly reduce the diversity of plants and birds, and displays allelopathic effects.
Furthermore, a few alien species in Israel not listed among those 50 species should be followed with care:
  • Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae, EPPO Alert list) is only occurring in a palm date plantation in Israel and is a major noxious weed in Africa, Australia and India.
  • Maireana brevifolia (Amaranthaceae) is recorded in Israel as well as in Islas Canarias (Spain) where it is regulated as invasive.

Sources

CABI Invasive Species Compendium. http://www.cabi.org/isc/
DAISIE Database. http://www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
Dufour-Dror JM (2012) Alien Invasive Plants in Israel. The Middle East Nature Conservation Promotion Association. 213 pp.
Pollen library website – Weak-Leaf Burr-Ragweed (Ambrosia confertiflora). http://www.pollenlibrary.com/Specie/Ambrosia+confertiflora/