New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. Information sent by NPPOs has also been included here. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Ips amitinus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae – EU Annexes) is reported for the first time from Sweden. It was detected in the northern part of the country. The NPPO recalled that Sweden is not an EU protected zone for this organism (NPPO of Sweden, 2012). Present, northern part.
Parasaissetia nigra (Hemiptera: Coccidae - EU annexes) is reported for the first time from Mali. Specimens were collected on Plumeria sp. (Muniappan et al., 2012). Present, no details.
Sphacelotheca reiliana (head smut) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands in October 2012 in several maize fields in the municipality of Oss, near the river Maas (province of Noord-Brabant). The source of the infestation is not known, but natural spread from neighbouring countries is suspected. Phytosanitary measures have not been taken because the pathogen has a wide distribution in Europe. The pest status of Sphacelotheca reiliana in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, localised – not actionable (NPPO of the Netherlands, 2012).
In September 2008, symptoms resembling those of Tomato torrado virus (Torradovirus, ToTV – EPPO Alert List) were observed on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in plastic houses near Villa de Leyva (northeast of Bogota) in Colombia. Laboratory analysis (serological, molecular and biological tests) confirmed the presence of ToTV. This is the first time that ToTV is reported from Colombia (Verbeek and Dullemans, 2012). Present, first found in 2008 near Villa de Leyva.
The NPPO of Latvia has recently informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first record of Ophiostoma ulmi on its territory. O. ulmi was found on wilting elm trees (Ulmus spp.) in the towns of Tukums and Salaspils (region of Riga). One case was reported by a member of the public and the other was found during the annual official survey of the botanical garden. The identity of the pathogen was officially confirmed on 2012-07-10.
The pest status of Ophiostoma ulmi in Latvia is officially declared as: Present (NPPO of Latvia, 2012).
Stephanitis pyrioides (Hemiptera: Tingidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Slovenia. It was first found in 2009 in Nova Gorica on azaleas (Rhododendron japonicum) (Gogala and Seljak, 2010). Present, first found in 2009 in Nova Gorica.
- Detailed records
In the United Kingdom, the eradication campaign against Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – EPPO A1 List) is continuing in the Paddock Wood area (EPPO RS 2012/069). As of July 2012, delimiting surveys have shown that 67 trees were infested and more than 250 live larvae have been found inside these trees. All infested trees are being destroyed and many trees have been felled in a buffer zone around the findings. Members of the public are also invited to look out for beetles and signs of infestation (IPPC and Forestry Commission, 2012).
In 2011, 80 samples of vegetables, ornamentals and weeds collected from Montenegro were tested for the presence of pospiviroids. During this study, the presence of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) was detected in one sample of Verbena sp. This is the first time that CEVd is detected on Verbena in Montenegro (Viršček Marn et al., 2012).
In the USA, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Illinois and nearby states including Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota (Plant Health Progress, 2012).
During a survey carried out in Southwestern Germany Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected in numerous commercial onion and leek fields of the Rhine valley area. No yield losses have been observed in bulb onions (Allium cepa) or leek (A. porrum). It is also noted that a small number of lesions was probably sufficient to reduce the quality of bunching onions (A. fistulosum), as affected leaves have to be removed before commercialization. However, economic data was lacking to evaluate this potential commercial impact (Krauthausen et al., 2012).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Liaoning province, China (Niu et al., 2012).
Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Aquitaine region (Gironde), France. The pest was detected on 1 Trachycarpus fortunei in a private garden (Anon., 2012).
- New host plants
The causal agent of pitch canker, Gibberella circinata (EPPO A2 List), was not known to occur on hosts other than Pinus species. However, studies conducted in California (US) during July and August 2011 showed that G. circinata could be recovered from several symptomless Poaceae collected near naturally infected pine stands (i.e. Pinus radiata on the Monterey Peninsula, and P. muricata at Point Reyes National Seashore). G. circinata was recovered from Holcus lanatus and Festuca arundinacea. These isolates were then shown to be pathogenic to Pinus radiata in artificial inoculation tests. Further studies are underway to better characterize the host range of G. circinata and assess the possible role of symptomless Poaceae in the epidemiology of pine pitch canker (Swett ; Gordon, 2012).
In Iran (Fars province), Spiroplasma citri (EU Annexes) has been found in association with a disease of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) characterized by stunting, yellowing, phloem discoloration and necrosis (Khanchezar et al., 2012).
In Turkey, Colletrotricum acutatum (anamorph of Glomerella acutata) was detected on hazelnut (Corylus avellana) during surveys conducted in 2008-2009. Necrotic, sunken lesions and rot were observed on leaves, fruit clusters and pedicels of hazelnut trees growing near Ordu, Giresun and Trabzon (Black Sea region). The disease caused significant cluster drop in some orchards on hazelnut cultivars ‘Tombul’, ‘Sivri’ and ‘Palaz’. This is the first time that C. acutatum is reported to be a pathogen of hazelnut (Sezer ; Dolar, 2012).
In July 2010, numerous adults and immature stages of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae – EPPO A1 List) were found infesting a ﬁg tree (Ficus carica) in a private garden in Welasco, Texas (US). Glasshouse experiments confirmed that D. citri was able to complete its life cycle on potted ﬁg trees. Although D. citri breeds mainly on a narrow host range within the Rutaceae family, it seems that some non-preferred plants outside this family might be acceptable alternatives (Thomas ; de León, 2011).
In Australia, symptoms of black scab were observed in many jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis - Buxaceae) plantations in New South Wales and Southern Queensland, in 2005 and 2006. This new disease was shown to be caused by Elsinoe australis (EU Annexes), a pathogen which is normally associated with citrus (Rutaceae). Although molecular analysis of the pathogen indicated that it is closely related to the C. natsudaidai and C. sinensis pathotypes of E. australis, glasshouse and laboratory experiments demonstrated that it is not pathogenic to a range of citrus cultivars grown in Australia. It is therefore suggested that the isolates from S. chinensis represent a new pathotype of E. australis (Ash et al., 2012).
- New species
'Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus' sp. nov. was recently found in pear (Pyrus communis) trees without causing symptoms in Northwestern Italy (Piemonte and Valle d’Aosta regions). It is associated with and transmitted by the psyllid Cacopsylla pyri. However, ‘Ca.;L. europaeus’ apparently behaves as an endophyte rather than a pathogen (Raddadi et al., 2010). In further studies conducted in Italy (in the same regions), Israel and Hungary, ‘Ca. L. europaeus’ was detected for the first time in Hungary (Pest county) but not in Israel. The bacterium was also detected in other plant species (Crataegus monogyna, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa) and other Cacopsylla species (C. affinis, C. ambigua, C. breviantennata, C. melanoneura, C. nigrita, C. peregrina, C. pyricola, C. pyrisuga) (Camerota et al., 2012).
Two new species of Gymnosporangium have been recently described from the Republic of Korea:
- Gymnosporangium monticola sp. nov. was found in 4 localities on Sorbus alnifolia (aecial host) and Juniperus rigida (telial host).
- Gymnosporangium unicorne sp. nov. was found in several localities in the Chungnam and Seoul provinces on Juniperus chinensis var. globosa and Juniperus chinensis var. argentii (telial hosts). The aecial stage was not observed in nature, but several rosaceous hosts were inoculated with teliospores and could produce the aecial stage (Crataegus pinnatifida, Chaenomeles speciosa, Pseudocydonia sinensis, Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, P. ussuriensis) (Yun et al., 2009).
- Denied records
The NPPO of the Netherlands informed the EPPO Secretariat that Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus is absent from the Netherlands. The source of an earlier record (Bos, 1970) which appears in the EPPO/CABI distribution map no. 1075 (2010) concerned in fact an isolate obtained from Italy for research purposes (NPPO, 2012).
Anonymous (2012) Phyto région. Paysandisia signalé. Phytoma - La Défense des Végétaux no. 651, p 7.
Ash GJ, Stodart B, Hyun JW (2012) Black scab of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) in Australia caused by a putative new pathotype of Elsinoë australis. Plant Disease 96(5), 629-634.
Bos L (1970) The identification of three new viruses isolated from Wisteria and Pisum in the Netherlands, and the problem of variation within the potato virus Y group. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 76, 8-46.
Camerota C, Raddadi N, Pizzinat A, Gonella E, Crotti E, Tedeschi R, Mozes-Daube N, Ember I, Acs Z, Kolber M, Schori-Fein E, Daffonchio D, Alma A (2012) Incidence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus’ and phytoplasmas in Cacopsylla species (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and their host/shelter plants. Phytoparasitica 40(3), 213-221.
-;IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – United Kingdom. First UK Asian longhorn beetle outbreak (update of 2012-07-18). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
-;Forestry Commission, UK (2012-07-18) Public urged to look out for exotic beetle pest of trees. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/newsrele.nsf/AllByUNID/DBF28E04AB49081280257A3F004C8CD6
-;Plant Health Progress. New pest found in fruit crops (dated 2012-10-26). http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/news/2012/NewPest/
Gogala A, Seljak G (2010) Two new records of Heteroptera species in Slovenia. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 18(1), 63-70.
Khanchezar A, Izadpanah K, Salehi M (2012) Partial characterization of Spiroplasma citri isolates associated with necrotic yellows disease of safflower in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 160(7-8), 331-336.
Krauthausen HJ, Leinhos G, Müller J, Radtke PC, Jehle JA (2012) Identification and incidence of Iris yellow spot virus in Allium field crops in Southwest Germany. European Journal of Plant Pathology 134(2), 345-356.
Muniappan R, Watson GW, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M (2012) New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 28, 1-7.
Niu JH, Jian H, Guo QX, Chen CL, Wang XY, Liu Q, Guo YD (2012) Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAP) assays based on 5S rDNA-IGS2 regions for detecting Meloidogyne enterolobii. Plant Pathology 61(4), 809-819
NPPO of Sweden (2012-09).
NPPO of the Netherlands (2012) Annual data on pest status covering 2011.
NPPO of the Netherlands (2012-07).
Raddadi N, Gonella E, Camerota C, Pizzinat A, Tedeschi R, Crotti E, Mandrioli M, Bianco PA, Daffonchio D, Alma A (2010) ‘Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus’ sp. nov. that is associated with and transmitted by the psyllid Cacopsylla pyri apparently behaves as an endophyte rather than a pathogen. Environmental Microbiology 13(2), 414–426.
Sezer A, Dolar FS (2012) Colletotrichum acutatum, a new pathogen of hazelnut. Journal of Phytopathology 160(7/8), 428-430.
Swett CL, Gordon TR (2012) First report of grass species (Poaceae) as naturally occurring hosts of the pine pathogen Gibberella circinata. Plant Disease 96(6), p 908.
Thomas DB, de León JH (2011) Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternative host for the Asian psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)? Florida Entomologist 94(4), 1081-1083.
Verbeek M, Dullemans AM (2012) First report of Tomato torrado virus infecting tomato in Colombia. Plant Disease 96(4), p 592.
Viršček Marn M, Mavrič Pleško I, Zindović J (2012) First report of Citrus exocortis viroid in a Verbena sp. in Montenegro. Plant Disease 96(4), p 593.