Ralstonia solanacearum on Anthurium in Martinique
Martinique is a producer of Anthurium cut flowers, but intensification of this crop in the 1980s has led to the appearance of phytosanitary problems, in particular caused by bacteria. At present, 3 bacteria have been identified on Anthurium in Martinique: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) in 1984 (its finding led to the destruction of all infested plots), Acidovorax anthurii in 1986 (it rarely kills plants but flower quality is drastically reduced), and finally Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) in 1999. Symptoms were characterized by water-soaked lesions along the midrib, large black necrotic lesions on leaves surrounded by a water-soaked margin on the underside, water-soaked lesions on flowers, yellowing bacterial ooze when cutting stem bases. Affected plants finally die. From 1999 to 2001, surveys were carried out on Anthurium and other host plants. Results showed a slow progression of the disease in Anthurium crops, mainly in the areas of Gros Morne, Saint Joseph and Morne Rouge. R. solanacearum was not found on other host plants (Araceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae), with the exception of one sample of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) which showed wilt symptoms. Anthurium isolates were characterized and found closely related to those causing Moko disease of banana (absent in Martinique). Pathogenicity tests were immediately conducted on banana, but no symptoms were obtained on artificial inoculation. In addition, during surveys carried out in banana orchards located near Anthurium infected plots, the bacterium was not found in banana. Anthurium isolates are different from Solanaceous isolates usually found in the Caribbean. In addition, similar types of isolates were discovered in December 2001 on Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, melon, Cucurbita moschata) showing symptoms of bacterial wilt. Further studies will be carried out on this new group of isolates attacking Anthurium and Cucurbitaceae in Martinique.
Mian, D.; Coranson-Beaudu, R.; Duféal, D.; Grassart, L.; Mention, P. (2002) Ralstonia solanacearum sur anthurium à la Martinique. Une bactériose inquiétante.
Phytoma – La Défense des Végétaux, n° 551, 43-45.