Introductions of eucalyptus psyllids
In Australia, a relatively large number of psyllid species (more than a hundred species) attack eucalyptus trees. With the trade of eucalyptus plant material, several psyllids have been introduced into other parts of the world. The EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following examples:
Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Homoptera, Psyllidae) - blue gum psyllid
It originates from south-east Australia and has spread to New Zealand, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Papua New Guinea. In Europe, it was reported in United Kingdom in 1922. It was then introduced into the Mediterranean region, mainly on Eucalyptus globulus: in Portugal in 1971 (mainland, and then in Madeira and the Azores), Spain in 1972 (mainland and then in Islas Canarias), Italy in 1982, France in 1994 (although it was probably present much earlier, there is an unconfirmed record in northern France in 1926). It was also reported from Ireland (1979) and Germany (1998). In the Americas, its presence was recorded in California (US) in 1991, and later in several South American countries including Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru and Uruguay. C. eucalypti feeds on growing shoots of young succulent plants or on the new growth of older trees. It attacks a limited range of eucalyptus species, including in particular E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. neglecta, E. nitens, E. perriniana and E. pulverulenta. Direct effects of psyllid feeding include severe shoot dieback, leaf curl and discoloration. Insects produce large amounts of honeydew on which sooty mould develops. On eucalyptus produced for ornamental foliage, quality is drastically reduced. However, the release of a parasitoid Psyllaephagus pilosus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) has given good results in several countries, and apparently maintains pest populations at acceptable levels.
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Homoptera, Psyllidae) – red gum lerp psyllid
Another Australian eucalyptus psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, has recently been introduced into North America (see EPPO RS 2002/019), and is apparently causing serious problems, as severe defoliations leading to tree death are reported. G. brimblecombei was first discovered in June 1998, in California (US), in Los Angeles county, on Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The pest rapidly spread to almost all counties in California. In April 2001, it was found for the first time in Florida at Lake Buena Vista. Its presence was also reported in Hawaii in 2001. In September 2000, G. brimblecombei was observed in Baja California, Mexico. It now occurs in 21 states of Mexico. Work is currently done on the use of biological control, using a parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae).
Eucalyptolyma maideni (spotted gum lerp psyllid) and Cryptoneossa triangula (lemon gum psyllid)
In August 2000, an unusual lerp psyllid was collected from Eucalyptus citriodora in Los Angeles, California (US). The species was identified as Eucalyptolyma maideni which is a pest of E. citriodora, E. gummifera and E. maculata in Australia. Since then, it was also discovered near Anaheim (at Disney Resort) and heavy infestations have been reported from many locations within Los Angeles and Orange county. So far, it appears that no tree mortality has been observed. Another species Cryptoneossa triangula has also been detected on E. maculata in California in the surroundings of Anaheim (also at Disney Resort). Biological control possibilities are currently being studied for these two species.
Bertaux, F., Phalip, M.; Martinez, M.; Schumacher, J.C. (1996) Le psylle de l’eucalyptus. Nouveau ravageur des eucalyptus en France. Phytoma – La Défense des Végétaux, n° 487, 48-50.
Malausa, J.C.;; Girardet, N. (1997) Lutte biologique contre le psylle de l’eucalyptus. Acclimatation sur la Côte d’Azur d’un auxiliaire prometteur, Psyllaephagus pilosus. Phytoma – La Défense des Végétaux, n° 498, 49-51.
Hodkinson, I.D. (1999) Biocontrol of eucalyptus psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti by the Australian parasitoid Psyllaephagus pilosus: a review of current programmes and their success. Biocontrol News and Information, 20(4), 129-134.
Chauzat, M.P.; Purvis, G.; Dunne, R. (2001) A foreigner in Ireland. Biologist, 48(3), 133-135.
IITO Newsletter. Tree Health: the Bolivia experience by E.R. Boa and J. Bentley. http://www.itto.or.jp/newsletter/v8n1/16.html
Servicio de information agropecuaria del Ministerio de Agricultura y ganaderia del Ecuador. Nueva plaga de los eucaliptos (en Chile). http://www.sica.gov.ec/agronegocios/Biblioteca/Ing
Universidad de Concepcion (Chile) Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890): el psilido del eucalipto en Chile (Hemiptera: Sternorryncha: Psylloidea: Spondyliaspininae) by T.S. Olivares. http://www.udec.cl/entomologia/Psyllidae.html
DOACS – Florida. Pest Alert. Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei by S.E. Halbert. http://doacs.state.fl.us/~pi/enpp/ento/glycaspis.html
Gobierno del Distrito Federal Mexico. Secretaria del Medio Ambiente. Control de la plaga que afecta a el eucalipto. http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/varios/plaga.htm
State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture. New Pest Advisory no. 01-02. Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Homoptera: Psyllidae) by W.T. Nagamine ; R.A. Heu, July 2001. http://www.hawaiiag.org/hdoa/npa/npa01-02_rpsyllid.pdf
Eucalyptolyma maideni and Cryptoneossa triangula
Berkeley University. Biological control of psyllids on lemon-scented and spotted gum in California by D.L. Dahlsten, (2001, modified 2002). http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/biocon/dahlsten/lemon_gum/
Los Angeles County Agricultural Commissioner’s Office New Agricultural Pest for Southern California - Spotted Gum Lerp Psyllid, Eucalyptolyma maideni. http://acwm.co.la.ca.us/pdf/SpoGum.pdf