Phakopsora euvitis: Addition to the EPPO Alert List
Considering new data on the taxonomy of grapevine rust and the importance of the disease, the EPPO Secretariat adds Phakopsora euvitis to the EPPO Alert List (see EPPO RS 2002/030).
Phakopsora euvitis – grapevine rust
Why: recent taxonomic studies partly clarified the situation of Phakopsora species causing grapevine rust. It now appears that the pathogen which is responsible for grapevine rust in Asia is Phakopsora euvitis (and not P. ampelopsidis nor P. vitis which are restricted to other host plants). As P. euvitis can cause a serious grapevine disease, the EPPO Secretariat adds it to the Alert List.
Asia: Bangladesh, China (Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan), India (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh), Indonesia (Java), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu islands, Shikoku), Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand). There is one record in the Russian Far East. In 2001, P. euvitis was reported in Australia in the Darwin area (Northern Territory).
There are many records of grapevine leaf rusts in the Americas but they were either described under other names or the pathogen could not be definitely identified, but none appeared to be P. vitis.
On which plants: Vitis (mainly V. labrusca, V. vinifera, but also V. amurensis, V. coignetiae, V. ficifolia, V. flexuosa). P. euvitis is a heteroecious rust. Pycnidia and aecia have only been observed in Japan on Meliosma myriantha. In most other areas, only uredia and telia are produced on grapevine.
Damage: On grapevine, yellowish to brownish lesions of various shapes and sizes appear of the leaves. Yellowish orange masses of urediniospores are produced on the lower leaf side, with dark necrotic spots on the upper surface. Heavy infection causes early senescence of the leaves and premature leaf fall. The disease can cause poor shoot growth, reduction of fruit quality and yield loss. On Meliosma myriantha, pale yellowish, circular or orbicular lesions appear of the leaves. Small orange-brown dots appear on the underside of the leaf with black lesions on the upper surface.
Transmission: Spores of P. euvitis can easily be transported by wind and air-currents. Mycelium may persist in grapevine shoots during winter and then urediniospores formed on these shoots become the primary infection source.
Pathway: Plants for planting of Vitis from countries where P. euvitis occurs. However, in many European countries, the import of Vitis material from outside the region is prohibited.
Possible risks: Grapevine is an important crop in many European countries, and the possible introduction of a new disease requiring additional treatments should be avoided. P. euvitis occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas and it is reported that it is more serious in these areas than in temperate areas. More data is needed on the situation of this disease in temperate areas (e.g. in USA). More data is also needed on its distribution in the Americas, as it has not yet been clarified yet what was the fungus species present there due to previous taxonomic confusions. Control methods are apparently available (use of tolerant or resistant cultivars) and application of fungicides.
EPPO RS 2002/030
Panel review date - Entry date 2002-02
CABI draft datasheets on Phakopsora ampelopsidis, P. euvitis, and P. vitis.
Leu, L.S. (1988) Rust. In: Compendium of grapevine diseases (ed. by Pearson, C.R.; Goheen, A.C.) pp 28-30. APS, St Paul, Minnesota, USA.
ProMed postings. http:// www.promedmail.org. Phakopsora euvitis, leaf rust, grapes - Australia (NT) (2001-08-03)
Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development of Australia Web site .Grapevine leaf rust. http://www.nt.gov.au/dpif/plants/plant_health/litchfield.shtml