Survey on tospoviruses in Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was fist reported in 1952 in tobacco crops in the south, and in 1954 in tomato fields in the north. At that time, only Thrips tabaci was known as a vector. Since then, TSWV outbreaks occurred frequently in the major tobacco-growing areas and in neighbouring tomato fields. In 1993, as a consequence of the introduction and rapid spread of Frankliniella occidentalis (EPPO A2 quarantine pest), outbreaks were observed in glasshouses all over the country. Surveys were done in Bulgaria during 3 consecutive years. As a result, 258 tospovirus isolates were obtained out of 348 samples from different regions (tomato, capsicum, tobacco, weeds and ornamentals). During this survey, Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest) was not found. In thrips transmission studies, it was found that Bulgarian TSWV isolates are transmitted with high efficiency by F. occidentalis and that only arrhenotokous populations (unmated females lay eggs that become haploid males) and not thelytokous populations (parthenogenetic female populations) of T. tabaci could transmit the virus.
Hristova, D.; Karadjova, O.; Yankulova, M.; Heinze, C.; Adam, G. (2001) A survey of tospoviruses in Bulgaria.
Journal of Phytopathology, 149(11-12), 745-749.