NPPO Annual Meeting
The NAPPO Annual Meeting took place in Banff, Alberta (Canada) on the 2001-10-15/19. In addition to the NAPPO activities, the situation of several pests in North America was presented and is summarized below.
Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A1 quarantine pest)
A. grandis was introduced into USA from Mexico in 1892. It is estimated that this pest has cost more than 14 billion USD to the cotton industry. An eradication programme started in 1983 in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. The eradication programme takes 3-5 years in each zone, followed by post-eradication surveillance. In 2001, A. grandis has been eradicated from Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and portions of Texas and Tennessee. Eradication continues in Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and New Mexico (see also EPPO RS 2001/014). It is expected that nationwide eradication will be achieved by 2005.
Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 quarantine pest)
A total of three A. ludens was found in California (San Diego and Orange counties). No A. ludens was detected in Florida. In Texas, 120 fruit flies were captured in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, throughout the 2000-2001 growing season. All infestations in this area were declared eradicated in September 2001. An area-wide management programme against A. ludens is being set up in Texas.
Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae)
A total of 13 B. correcta was found in various locations in California (Los Angeles, Santa Clara and San Diego). 2 detections were made in Florida (Orange and Seminole counties).
Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 quarantine pest)
In 2001, a total of 33 adults was found in various locations in California (Los Angeles, Orange, Santa Clara, San Diego, Contra costa and San Bernardino counties). However, the numbers of captures observed only triggered a single federal quarantine in San Bernadino county.
Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae – candidate A1 quarantine pest)
A total of 4 adults was found in California (Santa Clara county). B. zonata was not detected in Florida.
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
A single outbreak occurred in Los Angeles county, California during 2001. No outbreaks were observed in Florida.
Glycaspis brimblecombei (Homoptera: Psyllidae)
The red gum lerp*1 psyllid is a serious pest of eucalyptus which has recently been introduced from Australia into California, USA, and also into several states in Mexico.
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List)
Sudden oak death has been reported for the first time in Oregon (Curry county), near the city of Brookings, on the 2001-08-09.
Plum pox potyvirus (EPPO A2 quarantine pest)
Plum pox potyvirus was detected for the first time in USA, in Adams county, Pennsylvania in 1999. A national survey was completed in 2001, including intensive surveys in New York, Michigan and Pennsylvania. As a result, 8 new commercial orchards and 8 private gardens were found infected only in Pennsylvania. 8 of the infected properties were located within 1000 metres of the previously infected orchard. Newly infected orchards were confirmed outside the currently regulated area, in 3 adjacent counties. The regulated area has been enlarged and all infected trees were destroyed.
In Canada, Plum pox potyvirus was found in 3 places in Ontario and Nova Scotia (see also EPPO RS 2001/010).
Tilletia indica (EPPO A1 quarantine pest)
For the first time since 1997, T. indica has been detected in several fields outside a regulated area. The initial discovery, made in late May 2001 at a grain elevator in Young county, Texas, led to a quarantine of the entire county, as well as adjacent Throckmorton county. Archer and Baylor counties, directly north of these, were also added to the regulated area after the fungus was found at several grain elevators (see also EPPO RS 2001/109). In USA, Federal regulations prohibit the entry into the US of seeds, plants, unprocessed straw, chaff, and products of the wheat milling process (not including flour) from counties where T. indica is known to occur.
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Eradication measures are being taken against citrus canker in Florida, as the disease has been found in 7 counties. The movement of citrus plant material from quarantine areas is prohibited, though citrus fruit may move under certain conditions when properly certified. All positive trees and exposed trees with 1900 feet (approximately 600 m) are destroyed. In February 2000, more funds were allocated to this eradication programme and for a survey on the whole territory of Florida. In December 2000 and June 2001, measures were taken to allow compensation for commercial citrus growers. Despite all these efforts, in December 2001, the disease was detected in the southern part of Martin county, Florida (see also EPPO RS 2002/005).
* ‘Lerp’ is a term derived from an aboriginal Australian language describing the conical and waxy protective cover which is secreted by the nymphs.
NAPPO Annual Meeting, Banff, Alberta (Canada), 2001-10-15/19