Resistance to carbaryl in Diabrotica virgifera
In order to reduce the use of soil insecticides against larvae of Diabrotica virgifera (EPPO A2 quarantine pest), area wide management programmes against adult populations of the pest have been developed in USA. In these foliar treatments, an insecticide (carbaryl) and an attractant (cucurbitacin) are used over wide areas of maize fields (commercial product is called Slam). Studies were done in Kansas to assess the possible development of insecticide resistance in insect populations. Susceptibility of adult populations to carbaryl was determined in 1996 before the implementation of the area wide management programme applied in north central Kansas. Adult susceptibility was then monitored from 1997 to 2000, both in non treated and treated areas. Results showed that in the treated areas, adult susceptibility to carbaryl decreased rapidly. In 1999, adults were 9 to 20-fold less susceptible to carbaryl at the LC50 and LC90 levels, respectively, than adults evaluated in 1996. The authors stressed the necessity to develop resistance management programmes at early stages. The efficacy of other active substances with different chemical nature or mode of action associated with baits should be studied.
Zhu, K.Y.; Wilde, G.E.; Higgins, R.A.; Sloderbeck, P.E.; Buschman, L.L.; Shufran, R.A.; Whitworth, R.J.; Starkey, S.R.; He, F. (2001) Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in areawide-managed cornfields in North Central Kansas.
Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(4), 929-934.