Situation of Phytophthora ramorum in EPPO countries
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List) causes a lethal disease on oak in North America (sudden oak death). The pathogen is also present in Europe on several species of ornamental shrubs but there is no evidence that European isolates can attack oaks. As more information was needed on its geographical distribution and host plants in Europe, the EPPO Secretariat has sent a questionnaire to all member countries and results were discussed by the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations. The EPPO Secretariat has summarized below the answers received. When countries have stated the pest status, it is indicated in bold. In other cases, the EPPO Secretariat has summarized the pest situation which is in also indicated in bold according to the terms of FAO ISPM no 8.
Absent, no pest record.
In Belgium, P. ramorum was first isolated in late spring of 2002 in the south part of Belgium from imported Viburnum x bodnantense. At about the same time it was diagnosed on Rhododendron in the north part of Belgium. Since then, several more positive diagnoses have been made on Rhododendron and Viburnum plants. Present, found in a few nurseries on Rhododendron and Viburnum, under official control.
A survey was carried out in 2002 with findings of P. ramorum in plants of Rhododendron (originating from the Netherlands and Germany) and in Viburnum (originating from the Netherlands). Survey will continue in 2003. Present, found on Rhododendron and Viburnum originating respectively from the Netherlands and Germany, and from the Netherlands, under official control.
Absent, no pest record.
As a result of a national survey carried out over the whole territory, 32 cases of P. ramorum were detected in 2002 (out of a total of 292 analyses made). All infected plants were Rhododendron and Viburnum originating from various nurseries. Official measures are taken. The declared status of P. ramorum in France is: Present, under official control.
In 2002, P. ramorum was found at 38 locations out of 672 surveyed, only in Rhododendron and Viburnum. Pest status: Present, subject to official control.
P. ramorum is present in a few sites (garden centres, gardens and parks) and subject to an eradication programme. Present, found on Rhododendron, Viburnum, Camellia, Leucothoe and Arbutus in a few garden centres and parks, under eradication.
National surveys are being performed in 2003 and so far, P. ramorum has not been found in Hungary.
The declared pest status for P. ramorum is the following: P. ramorum is not listed on the Hungarian quarantine list. The pest is considered to be absent in Hungary.
P. ramorum was found on plants of Rhododendron at 6 locations and on plants of Viburnum at 3 locations (nurseries and garden centres) in the east of the country since November 2002. Phytosanitary measures are being applied. Present, found in a few nurseries and garden centres on imported Rhododendron and Viburnum, under official control.
Not recorded in Jersey. Absent, no pest record.
Absent, surveys started in 2003. Absent, no pest record.
Surveys and testing for P. ramorum will be carried out in 2003. So far, P. ramorum has never been found. Absent, no pest record.
P. ramorum has never been recorded. Absent, no pest record.
All 1083 nurseries producing plants for planting of Rhododendron and/or Viburnum were inspected during the 2002 growing season. Infections of P. ramorum have been found on 41 nurseries. On these 41 nurseries, infections have been found in 47 lots, 32 lots of Viburnum bodnantense ‘Dawn’, 4 lots of other Viburnum spp. (3 lots of V. farreri and 1 lot of V. plicatum) and 11 lots of Rhododendron spp. Present, found in a few nurseries on Rhododendron and Viburnum, under official control.
P. ramorum has been found on one occasion, on imported Rhododendron plants. Symptoms were found in late summer 2002 on a batch of plants imported in spring 2002. Some of the Rhododendron plants in the consignments had already been sold; the rest were destroyed. Present, found only once on imported Rhododendron plants, under official control.
P. ramorum has been found in one nursery in 2001 on plants of Rhododendron sp. imported from Germany which were grown in containers. All plants were destroyed. Present, found only once on imported Rhododendron plants, under official control.
For P. ramorum, a survey programme was initiated in 2002, and so far no positive finds have been made. Absent, confirmed by survey.
So far, P. ramorum has not been found. An official detection survey for P. ramorum is planned for 2003. The declared status for Phytophtora ramorum is: absent, no pest records.
P. ramorum was first found in Spain in 2002 on Rhododendron plants coming from another EU Member State at a nursery in Mallorca (Baleares). The pathogen has been detected in Galicia on Camellia and Rhododendron. Present, found in a few nurseries on Rhododendron at Mallorca (Baleares), on Rhododendron and Camellia in Galicia, under official control.
P. ramorum has not been found in Turkey. Absent, no pest records.
Intensive surveys are being carried out and outbreaks have been found at more that 260 premises in the UK, although at around 50% of these sites the disease is now considered to be eradicated. Most findings have been in rhododendron and viburnum species, with some findings in Pieris, Kalmia and Camellia and single findings in Syringa and Arbutus [new host records]. Most findings have been in nurseries or garden centres although there is an increasing number of findings in private gardens and estates that are open to the public. Nearly all of these have circumstantial links to nearby plant propagation or sales areas, or to recent plantings of host species found to be infected. Official control measures are being applied. Present, found mainly in nurseries (with some finding in private or public gardens), essentially on Rhododendron and Viburnum (but also on Pieris, Kalmia, Camellia, Syringa, Arbutus), under official control.
P. ramorum has never been found in Ukraine. Absent, no pest record.
NPPOs of EPPO member countries.
EPPO Secretariat, 2003-09.