Situation of Monilinia fructicola in EPPO countries
As Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A1 list) was detected for the first time in Europe in 2001 (in France), the EPPO Secretariat has sent a questionnaire to all its member countries to review its present situation, and this point was discussed by the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Measures. The EPPO Secretariat has summarized below the answers received. When countries have stated the pest status, this is indicated in bold. In other cases, the EPPO Secretariat has summarized the pest situation which is in also indicated in bold according to the terms of FAO ISPM no 8.
M. fructicola has never been detected in Algeria. Absent, no pest record.
Inspections for M. fructicola have been carried out at fruit-tree nurseries. From November to December 2002, 60 samples of Malus, Prunus (P. avium, P. domestica) and Pyrus were tested by PCR and all gave negative results. Absent, confirmed by survey.
A small survey was carried out in 2002 and samples of different fruits were examined. M. fructicola was not found. Absent, confirmed by survey.
Absent, no pest record.
Following the first finding of the disease in summer 2001 (see EPPO RS 2002/03), a survey was initiated in peach orchards in the south-east of France. The disease was detected in a zone extending from the department of Gard (near Costières) to Drôme (north of Valence). In 2002, it was decided to extend the survey to the whole of France and to all susceptible fruit-tree species (Prunus, Malus, Pyrus). In zones which had already been found infected in 2001, the survey was extended to species other than peach, and to peach-growing areas which had not been inspected in 2001, in order to delimit the focus better. In 2002, positive results were only detected on peach, in areas which had already been found infected in 2001 (Gard, Vaucluse, Drôme, Ardèche (Rhône valley only)). On peach, which appears to be the most susceptible species, no infection was detected in other parts of France. The declared status of M. fructicola in France is: Present but contained, under official control.
In 2002, a survey on the occurrence of M. fructicola was carried out in the whole of Germany focussing especially on the main production areas of stone fruit. From July until October, 383 samples were taken from fruits with suspicious symptoms of Monilinia infections. The samples were collected from orchards (246), scattered orchards (36), private gardens (73) and from traded fruit (28). Fruit samples were taken mainly from stone fruit (peach, nectarine, apricot, plum, sweet cherry, sour cherry, almond), and to a lesser extent, from pome fruit (apple, pear, quince). M. fructicola was not detected on any of the 383 samples tested, indicating that Germany can be considered to be free from this harmful organism. Pest status: Absent, confirmed by survey
M. fructicola is not present. Absent, no pest record.
The declared pest status of M. fructicola in Hungary is the following: I/A list in the Ministerial Decree 7/2001 (I.17.) FVM, which means: “Quarantine pests whose introduction into, and spread within, Hungary shall be banned” - “A) Quarantine pests not known to occur on the territory of EPPO member countries”. The pest is considered to be absent in Hungary.
M. fructicola was not found during the survey carried out late in 2002. The acreage of apples is low (approximately 620 ha - 300 ha culinary, 170 ha dessert and 150 ha cider apples). Other top fruit is not grown in Ireland. Absent, confirmed by survey.
M. fructicola is not recorded in Jersey. Absent, no pest record.
M. fructicola is absent from Latvia. Absent, no pest record.
The other species, M. fructigena is widespread in Lithuania. Symptoms of M. fructigena and M. fructicola are very similar, but so far M. fructicola has not been identified in Lithuania. Survey for M. fructicola will continue in 2003. Absent, confirmed by survey.
M. fructicola has never been recorded. Absent, no pest record.
A survey was carried out between June and September 2002 in orchards throughout the country. A total of 113 locations was visited and 123 samples were taken. The survey focused on plums (P. domestica) although some samples of sweet cherry (P. avium), apple (M. domestica), pear (P. communis) and apricot (P. armeniaca) were also collected. 99 samples had Monilinia fructigena, 4 had M. laxa, and 20 had mixed infections. But M. fructicola was not found on the 123 tested samples. The declared pest status of M. fructicola in the Netherlands is: not present.
M. fructicola is not known to occur in Norway and has never been found. Some fruit producing areas will be sampled and specifically tested for this pathogen in 2003. Absent, no pest record.
Monilinia fructicola has never been found. Absent, no pest record.
As regards M. fruticola, a survey protocol is in place, plant health inspections are made in the production fields and samples are taken whenever the fruits show symptoms. The inspection and results of the lab testing so far have indicated that the fungus is not present in our country. Absent, confirmed by survey.
A preliminary survey on M. fructicola was done in 2002: 50 samples of infected fruits or twigs from 19 locations in the main fruit growing areas in the central and southern part of the country were collected. Mainly plants from the genus Prunus were sampled (P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. serrulata), some samples were taken also from Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Corylus avellana. 44 samples had M. laxa, and 6 had M. fructigena. But the quarantine species M. fructicola was not found. Official detection survey for Monilinia fructicola is planned for 2003. The declared status for Monilinia fructicola in Slovenia is: absent, confirmed by survey.
M. fructicola has not been detected in Spain. After the appearance of the fungus in France, Spain implemented the EU Commission’s recommendation to investigate the situation of M. fructicola, and the fungus was not found. Absent, confirmed by survey.
M. fructicola has never been found in Turkey. Absent, no pest record.
A detection survey for the disease was carried out between September and November 2002. 107 samples of Prunus, Malus, Pyrus and Cydonia were tested and no Monilinia fructicola was detected. 86 samples had Monilinia fructigena, 19 M. laxa, and 2 had other diseases. The survey will continue in 2003. On this basis M. fructicola is not considered to be present in the United Kingdom. Absent, confirmed by survey.
M. fructicola has never been found in Ukraine. Absent, no pest record.
NPPOs of EPPO member countries.
EPPO Secretariat, 2003-09.