New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Two new eucalyptus gall wasps have been detected on the foliage of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Tunisia. Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) and Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded for the first time in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The authors noted that more precautions should be taken when exchanging eucalyptus plants for planting and that research should also be carried out to identify resistant or tolerant eucalyptus species (Dhahri et al., 2010). Present, no details.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A2 List) has been observed in a garden centre near Budapest (Hungary). Larvae were feeding on the foliage of container plants of Japanese willow (Salix integra cv. ‘Hakuro Nishiki’) which had been imported from Italy. Adult moths of C. pronubana have also been observed flying in a fruit and vegetable shop in Budapest. This is the first time that C. pronubana is reported from Hungary (Bodor & Szabóky, 2011). Present, detected once in a garden centre near Budapest.
Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO Alert List) occurs in North Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan (Calabria et al., 2010). Present, no details.
During inventory studies carried in the coastal and sub-coastal areas of Algeria, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List) has been collected from roses, Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus. This is the first time that F. occidentalis is reported from Algeria (Benmessaoud-Boukhalfa et al., 2010). Present, no details.
The presence of Black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Martinique is officially confirmed by the French NPPO. M. fijiensis was identified on 2010-09-22 in a banana plantation. It is suspected that spores of the fungus have been spread by strong winds from other Caribbean islands where the disease occurs. This is the first record of M. fijiensis in Martinique where an early detection and monitoring programme has been carried out for the last 3 years. A control strategy is being developed against the disease (NPPO of France, 2010). Present, no details.
Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Japan. It was first detected in 1986 on Dracaena at the Moji Plant Protection Station (Kyushu). In 1999, it was also found in Chichi-Jima (Ogasawara Archipelago). Other reports have then been made in other localities (Prefectures of Chiba, Fukuoka, Gifu, Ibaraki, Kochi, Kumamoto, Nara, Niigata, Ogasawara, Okinawa, Tokyo), mainly from the warm regions of Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and the Ryukyu Islands (Yoshimatsu et al., 2004). Present, found in several localities in Southern Japan.
- Detailed records
Blueberry scorch virus (Carlavirus, BlScV – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Michigan (US). In 2009, BlScV was first found in several commercial fields in the western part of Michigan, and all infected plants were destroyed. In 2010, infected plants were detected in fields adjacent to the infected areas found in 2009, eradication measures were applied again (Michigan State University website, 2010).
Chrysomphalus aonidum (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) has been found again in Calabria region, Italy (see also EPPO RS 2010/012). The pest was found on ornamental plants (Camellia spp.) in several companies in the municipality of Lamezia Terme (province of Catanzaro). Surveys have been intensified in this area to determine the extent of this infestation and take appropriate control measures (NPPO of Italy, 2010-11).
In the USA, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae – EPPO Alert List) has recently been reported in Michigan and Wisconsin (Stocks, 2011).
As reported in EPPO RS 2007/156, Globodera rostochiensis (EPPO A2 List) was detected in Québec (CA) in August 2006. The pest was found in the municipality of Saint-Amable, as well as in portions of nearby municipalities (Sainte-Julie, Saint-Marc-sur-Richelieu and Saint-Mathieu-de-Beloeil). Further studies have recently been carried out to determine the pathotype(s) present in the Saint-Amable regulated area. Results showed that the pathotype of G. rostochiensis collected from all infested fields was Ro1 (Mahran et al., 2010).
In spring 2010, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus, INSV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in greenhouse-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. ‘Atlantic’) in Washington State (US). These potato plants had been grown from pre-nuclear minitubers. The original source of the INSV inoculum remains unknown (Crosslin & Hamlin, 2010).
In June 2010, symptoms of Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV –EPPO Alert List) were observed on onion crops (Allium cepa cv. ‘Linda Vista’) on the Island of Maui, Hawaii (US). Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of IYSV. So far, IYSV has not been detected on other islands (Kauai, Oahu, Molokai or Hawaii) but its distribution and economic consequences on the onion production of Hawaii are under investigation (Sether et al., 2010).
In 2010, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV –EPPO Alert List) was reported from the Piemonte region, Italy (NPPO, 2010-09).
Potato mop-top virus (Pomovirus, PMTV) was detected for the first time in spring 2010 in North Dakota (US). PMTV was detected on samples of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum cv. ‘Russet Burbank’) collected from a commercial farm in Grand Forks County. Infected tubers had internal symptoms, i.e. concentric, necrotic arcs and circles (David et al., 2010).
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Begomovirus, TYLCV – EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Hawaii (US) in 2009. Infected tomato plants were found in a private garden in Wailuku (Maui Island) and in the research farm of the University of Hawaii in Poamoho (Oahu Island). It is hypothetized that TYLCV has been introduced into Hawaii on infected plant material (Melzer et al., 2010).
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Pennsylvania (US), where it is considered as the most important bacterial disease of peach and nectarine (Bardsley & Ngugi, 2010).
- Denied record
The NPPO of Poland considers that the following statement appearing in the EPPO datasheet on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (EPPO A2 List) is erroneous ‘In the EPPO region, the disease causes losses, particularly in Poland and …’. From 2006 to 2009, 199 samples of Medicago sativa (lucerne) have been collected and tested for the presence of C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus. As a result, the presence of the bacterium was detected in only 1 crop which was consequently destroyed. This was the second detection of C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus on the Polish territory since 1965. Therefore, it cannot be considered that the disease is causing economic losses in the production of lucerne in Poland (NPPO of Poland, 2010-07).
The box tree moth, Diaphania perspectalis (EPPO Alert List) has been placed in various genera including Palpita, Diaphania, Glyphodes and Neoglyphodes. In a recent taxonomic review, it is proposed that it should be transferred to the genus Cydalima, and therefore be called Cydalima perspectalis (Mally and Nuss, 2010).
Bardsley SJ, Ngugi HK (2010) Reliability and accuracy of visual methods used to quantify foliar symptoms of bacterial spot of peach and nectarine. Phytopathology 100(6 suppl.), S11.
Benmessaoud-Boukhalfa H, Mouhouche F, Belmazouzi FZ (2010) Inventory and identification of some Thrips species in coastal and subcoastal regions of Algeria. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5), 755-761.
Bodor J, Szabóky C (2011) [New records of the carnation tortrix moth (Cacoecimorpha pronubana Hübner, 1799). Növényvédelem 47(1), VI-VII (in Hungarian).
Calabria G, Máca J, Bächli G, Serra L, Pascual M (2010) First records of the potential pest species Drosophila suzukii (Diptera : Drosophilidae) in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology (in press) DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01583.x
Crosslin JM, Hamlin LL (2010) First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting greenhouse-grown potatoes in Washington State. Plant Disease 94(12), p 1507.
David N, Mallik I, Crosslin JM, Gudmestad NC (1011) First report of Potato mop-top virus in North Dakota. Plant Disease 94(12), p 1506
Dhahri S, Ben Jamaa ML, Lo Verde G (2010) First record of Leptocybe invasa and Ophelimus maskelli eucalyptus gall wasps in Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 5, 231-236.
Michigan State University. Integrated Pest Management Resources. Update on 2010 statewide survey for blueberry scorch and blueberry shock diseases by A. Schilder (dated 2010-08). http://www.ipmnews.msu.edu/fruit/Fruit/tabid/123/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/3104/Update-on-2010-statewide-survey-for-blueberry-scorch-and-blueberry-shock-diseases.aspx
Mahran A, Turner S, Martin T, Yu Q, Miller S, Sun F (2010) The golden cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotype Ro1 in the Saint-Amable regulated area in Quebec, Canada. Plant Disease 94(12), p 1510.
Mally R, Nuss M (2010) Phylogeny and nomenclature of the box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) comb. n., which was recently introduced into Europe (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae: Spilomelinae). European Journal of Entomology 107, 393-400.
Melzer MJ, Ogata DY, Fukuda SK, Shimabuku R, Borth WB, Sether DM, Hu JS (2010) First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Hawaii. Plant Disease 94(5), p 641.
NPPO of France (2010-10).
NPPO of Italy (2010-10, 2010-11).
NPPO of Poland (2010-07).
Sether DM, Borth WB, Shimabuku RS, Pappu HR, Melzer MJ, Hu JS (2010) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onion in Hawaii. Plant Disease 94(12), p 1508.
Stocks S (2011) Additional detections of the spotted wing drosophila. National Plant Diagnostic Network. First Detector Network News 6(3), p 1. http://www.sepdn.org/webfm_send/250
Yoshimatsu S, Miyamoto Y, Hirowatari T, Yasuda K (2004) [Occurrence of Opogona sacchari (Bojer) in Japan (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)]. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 48(2), 135-139 (in Japanese).