EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 04 - 2011 Num. article: 2011/082

New pest records in EPPO member countries

The following pests have recently been reported in some EPPO member countries.

  • Neuroterus saliens (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) found in the Netherlands
The NPPO of the Netherlands informed the EPPO Secretariat of the first report of an oak cynipid Neuroterus saliens (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on its territory. N. saliens was found in 2008 on Quercus cerris in public green in the South of Limburg. The main host plant of N. saliens is Quercus cerris but other oak species are mentioned as hosts in the literature (e.g. Q. robur, Q. brantii). The insect has two alternating generations: a spring generation (with both males and females) developing inside young acorns in separated chambers or on leaf buds (causing galls which resemble a sea anemone), and an autumn generation (with females only) developing in 3-4 mm elongated galls on the mid-veins on the underside of the leaves. Pictures of the galls can be viewed on the Internet:
Studies in Hungary have showed that N. saliens could reduce the production of viable Q. cerris acorns, as attacked acorns stop their development and fall prematurely. However, N saliens is generally not considered as a major pest of oaks in forests. Although data is lacking on its detailed geographical distribution, N. saliens occurs in approximately the same areas as its main host Q. cerris (Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe). According to Stone et al. (2002), Q. cerris has been intensively planted north and west of its native range over the past 400 years, and as a consequence several cynipid species, including N. saliens, have subsequently invaded Northwestern Europe. Because N. saliens already occurs in Europe without causing economic damage and has the potential to spread naturally, no phytosanitary measures were taken in the Netherlands.
The pest status of Neuroterus saliens in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, at low prevalence.

  • Otiorhynchus armatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) found in the Netherlands
In August 2010, the NPPO of the Netherlands reported the occurrence of Otiorhynchus armatus (strawberry root weevil) on Ligustrum and Eriobotrya japonica in 1 nursery. The origin of this finding is unknown but O. armatus may have been introduced with planting material imported from Southern Europe where the pest occurs. O. armatus is polyphagous and causes the same feeding damage on leaves and roots as other Otiorhynchus species. O. armatus occurs in Europe (Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Sweden (under glasshouse), Switzerland) and Piry et al. (1999) mention its presence in Mongolia and the Near East.

  • Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found in Cyprus
The NPPO of Cyprus recently reported the presence of Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis or cotton mealybug) on its territory. This mealybug was found mainly in private gardens on ornamental plants such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana, and Chrysanthemum. It was also occasionally found on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), grapevine (Vitis spp.) and solanaceous ornamentals. The NPPO of Cyprus will take phytosanitary measures to contain the pest. P. solenopsis is a highly polyphagous species which is considered as an invasive pest of cotton in China, India and Pakistan. A tentative distribution list is presented below:
EPPO region: Cyprus, Egypt.
Asia: China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Zhejiang), India (Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab), Pakistan.
Africa: Egypt, Nigeria.
North America: Mexico, USA (Arizona, California, Florida, District of Columbia, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas).
Central America and the Caribbean: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Panama.
South America: Brazil, Chile, Colombia.
Oceania: Australia (Queensland).

  • Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) found in Sicilia (IT)
The NPPO of Italy reported in 2010 the occurrence of Protopulvinaria pyriformis in Sicilia. This scale insect was found in citrus orchards in the Ionian coast of the island. On the mainland, it has also been found in Liguria (Pellizzari and Sacco, 2010). P. pyriformis is a polyphagous species which can be a serious pest of fruit trees (in particular of avocado (Persea americana)), and of ornamental plants. It is recorded in North and South America, Asia, Africa and the Mediterranean region (e.g. France, Greece (including Crete), Israel, and Spain).

  • Tropidosteptes pacificus (Hemiptera: Miridae) found in the Netherlands
As a result of monitoring activities, the NPPO of the Netherlands reported in April 2010, the occurrence of Tropidosteptes pacificus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Fraxinus excelsior in a public green area (province of Noord-Brabant). This was also the first record of this North American bug in Europe. T. pacificus mainly feeds on ash trees (F. latifolia, F. velutina, F. pennsylvanica, F. excelsior), although there are some reports on Acer and Populus. This bug can cause damage on buds, leaves, seeds and young twigs, which may lead to early defoliation. T. pacificus is known to occur in Canada and the USA. The origin of its introduction into the Netherlands is not known. The most probable pathway is the import of infested ash trees from North America. No phytosanitary measures were taken.
The pest status of Tropidosteptes pacificus in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, limited distribution in a public green area.

  • Umbonia crassicornis (Hemiptera: Membracidae) found in the Netherlands
In June 2010, the NPPO of the Netherlands reported the occurrence of Umbonia crassicornis on its territory. This showy ‘thorn bug’ (pictures can be viewed on the Internet, e.g. http://bugguide.net/node/view/4387) was found on Dracaena marginata grown in a greenhouse. This insect occurs in South America and Southern USA, and can feed on various ornamental trees and shrubs (e.g. Acacia, Albizzia, Cassia, Calliandra, Jacaranda, Hibiscus). It is considered that U. crassicornis has probably been introduced with plants for planting from Florida (US) or Costa Rica. Since this insect is a minor pest that is not able to survive outdoors in the Netherlands, no phytosanitary measures were taken.
The pest status of Umbonia crassicornis in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present, isolated finding on Dracaena marginata in greenhouse.

  • Drechslera cactivora found in Israel on Cactaceae
The NPPO of Israel declared that Drechslera cactivora has been found on its territory on pitaya (Hylocereus spp., Cactaceae). According to the CMI description of Fungi and Bacteria no. 1008 (CABI, 1990), D. cactivora is a weak parasite attacking cacti in favourable conditions which does not cause a very important disease. It has been reported in America and Europe (without any further details).
The pest status of Drechslera cactivora in Israel is officially declared as: Present, only in some areas where host crop is grown.

  • Pilidiella (Coniella) granati (pomegranate fruit rot) found in Israel
The NPPO of Israel reported that Pilidiella (Coniella) granati has been found in pomegranates (Punica granatum) in a storage house. A survey is being carried out to discover the source of this infection. This fungus has been reported from different regions of the world, causing decay of pomegranate fruits in the orchard or during storage. A tentative distribution list is presented below.
Asia: India (Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan), Korea Republic, Pakistan.
Africa: Kenya.
EPPO region: Cyprus, Greece, Spain, Turkey.
Americas: Brazil, USA.

  • Puccinia argentata (Impatiens rust) on Impatiens spp. found in the Netherlands
In September 2010, the NPPO of the Netherlands reported the first finding of Puccinia argentata (Puccinia impatientis) in Impatiens spp. on its territory. This fungus develops uredospores and teleutospores on Impatiens (Balsaminaceae), and aecidiospores and spermogonia on Adoxa moschatellina (Adoxaceae). P. argentata is reported from different continents [North America, Asia, Europe (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, and Norway.)] but does not cause significant damage.
The pest status of Puccinia argentata in the Netherlands is officially declared as: Present.

  • Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PIAMV) found on Lilium spp. in the Netherlands
In July 2010, the NPPO of the Netherlands reported the first finding of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PIAMV) on its territory. This virus was detected in Lilium spp. (Oriental types) showing severe necrotic symptoms on leaves. The virus was first detected in glasshouses producing lily flowers and then in open fields producing bulbs. Leaves of affected Lilium plants showed rust-coloured veins followed by necrotic lesions. In affected glasshouses, losses up to 80% were reported whereas in the outdoor flower bulb production no severe damage or crop loss was observed. The host plants of PIAMV are: Lilium spp., Nandina domestica, Plantago asiatica and Primula spp. This virus has been reported in Japan, Russia and the USA and possibly occurs in Chile, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea.
The origin of the virus is unknown but it is suspected that infected plant material (or plant tissue culture) is the main pathway for introducing and disseminating PIAMV. Little information is available on the disease epidemiology but because PIAMV is a Potexvirus, it might be mechanically transmitted. The lily production industry has initiated an action plan, including prophylactic measures and testing procedures for mother bulbs, to eradicate the virus from breeding and propagation systems. No official phytosanitary measures will be taken against PIAMV but specific surveys will be carried out to determine its pest status in the Netherlands.


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Hirka A, Csóka G (2006) Direct effects of carpophagous insects on the germination ability and early abscission of oak acorns. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica 2, 57-58.
Internet (last accessed 2011-03)
Anonymous (2009) Nederlandse Plantengallenwerkgroep – Nieuwsbrief No. 1 2009, 12 februari, 6 pp. http://www.plantengallen.com/datanederlands/Nieuwsbrief
Waarneming.nl. Zeeanemonngalwesp – Neuroterus saliens. http://waarneming.nl/soort/maps/29066?from=2007-07-18;to=2009-07-18
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NPPO of Cyprus (2010-12).
NPPO of Israel (2010-12).
NPPO of Italy (2010-11).
NPPO of the Netherlands (2009-06, 2010-04, 2010-06, 2010-10).
Pellizzari G, Sacco M (2010) [The scale insects of ornamental plants in Liguria region (Italy)]. Protezione delle Colture 4, 27-36 (in Italian).
Piry S, Gompel N, Allemand R (1999) Acclimatation dans le sud de la France d’Otiorhynchus (Dorymerus) armatus Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 104(5), 455-457.
Stone GN, Schönrogge K, Atkinson RJ, Bellido D, Pujade-Villar J (2002) The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annual Review of Entomology 47, 633-668.
Vacante V (2010) Review of the phytophagous mites collected on citrus in the world. Acarologia 50(2), 221-241.