EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 06 - 2012 Num. article: 2012/136

New EPPO lists of invasive alien plants


The EPPO webpages on invasive alien plants have been revised in order to provide updated lists of invasive alien plants and information on all the latest initiatives (e.g. on the Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants).
The procedure to list invasive alien plants has been standardized. The EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Species developed the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants, and assessed all invasive alien plants listed in the EPPO system (i.e. in the previously existing EPPO Lists) through this process. This prioritization process is designed (i) to produce a list of invasive alien plants that are established or could potentially establish in the EPPO region, and (ii) to determine which of these have the highest priority for an EPPO Pest Risk Analysis.

Following this procedure, when a new species is identified as a potential threat for the EPPO region (already present in the EPPO region or absent) by a member country or by the EPPO Secretariat, this species is documented through a mini datasheet which is published in the EPPO Reporting Service and is included on the EPPO Alert List. The following table provides the species included in the EPPO Alert List as of June 2012, with their family and date of addition:

Species
Family
Date of addition to the Alert list
Andropogon virginicus
Poaceae
2011
Asparagus asparagoides
Asparagaceae
2012
Limnophila sessiliflora
Plantaginaceae
2012
Miscanthus sinensis
Poaceae
2011
Parthenium hysterophorus
Asteraceae
2011


Each species of the Alert List is then assessed individually through the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants. The process examines whether the species is alien in the area under study, and whether it is established or not. The spread potential, the potential negative impacts on native species, habitats and ecosystems, as well as on agriculture, horticulture or forestry are considered as well.

If there is not enough information on the species or if the impacts it poses are not high, the species (present or absent from the EPPO region) is then registered on the Observation List. This Observation List was created in 2012. Inclusion of a species into this list is not definitive. Changes can be made when additional information is recorded, particularly when information on invasiveness becomes available, or when a significant change in the invasive behaviour of a plant is observed. The following table provides the species included in the EPPO Observation list as of June 2012, with their family and date of addition:

Species
Family
Date of addition to the Observation List
Akebia quinata
Lardizabalaceae
2012
Araujia sericifera
Asclepiadoideae
2012
Azolla filiculoides
Salviniaceae
2012
Bidens frondosa
Asteraceae
2012
Cenchrus incertus
Poaceae
2012
Eragrostis curvula
Poaceae
2012
Eriochloa villosa
Poaceae
2012
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
Asteraceae
2012
Lupinus polyphyllus
Fabaceae
2012
Lysichiton americanus (A2 in 2005 - deleted in 2009)
Araceae
2012
Rhododendron ponticum
Ericaceae
2012
Sesbania punicea
Fabaceae
2012
Solidago nemoralis
Asteraceae
2012
Stipa trichotoma, S.neesiana and S. tenuissima
Poaceae
2012
Verbesina encelioides
Asteraceae
2012


If the species assessed is determined to have a high spread potential and has a high impact on native species, habitats and ecosystems, or on agriculture, horticulture and forestry, the species is then registered on the EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants. The species registered on the List of Invasive Alien Plants have also been assessed through the second step of the EPPO prioritization process designed to determine whether the species represents a priority for Pest Risk Analysis. The following table provides the species included in the EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants as of June 2012, with their family, date of addition and level of priority for Pest Risk Analysis (PRA):

Species
Family
Date of addition to the List of IAP
Priority for PRA
Acacia dealbata
Fabaceae
2006
Priority
Acroptilon repens
Asteraceae
2005
Lower priority
Ailanthus altissima
Simaroubaceae
2004
Not a priority
Alternanthera philoxeroides
Amaranthaceae
2012
Priority
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Asteraceae
2004
Lower priority
Amelanchier spicata
Rosaceae
2004
Lower priority
Amorpha fruticosa
Fabaceae
2006
Lower priority
Baccharis halimifolia
Asteraceae
2006
Priority
Buddleia davidii
Scrophulariaceae
2006
Lower priority
Cabomba caroliniana
Cabombaceae
2006
PRA available
Carpobrotus acinaciformis
Aizoaceae
2006
Not a priority
Carpobrotus edulis
Aizoaceae
2006
Not a priority
Cornus sericea
Cornaceae
2012
Lower priority
Cortaderia selloana
Poaceae
2006
Lower priority
Delairea odorata
Asteraceae
2012
Lower priority
Cyperus esculentus
Cyperaceae
2004
Not a priority
Egeria densa
Hydrocharitaceae
2005
Lower priority
Elodea nuttallii
Hydrocharitaceae
2004
Not a priority
Fallopia baldschuanica
Polygonaceae
2012
Lower priority
Fallopia japonica
Polygonaceae
2004
Not a priority
Fallopia sachalinensis
Polygonaceae
2004
Not a priority
Fallopia x bohemica
Polygonaceae
2004
Not a priority
Hakea sericea
Proteaceae
2012
Priority
Helianthus tuberosus
Asteraceae
2004
Not a priority
Heracleum mantegazzianum
Apiaceae
2004
Not a priority
Humulus japonicus
Cannabaceae
2012
Priority
Hydrilla verticillata
Hydrocharitaceae
2012
Priority
Impatiens glandulifera
Balsaminaceae
2004
Not a priority
Lagarosiphon major
Hydrocharitaceae
2004
Priority
Microstegium vimineum
Poaceae
2012
Priority
Myriophyllum aquaticum
Haloragaceae
2004
Lower priority
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
Haloragaceae
2012
Priority
Oxalis pes-caprae
Oxalidaceae
2006
Not a priority
Paspalum distichum
Poaceae
2004
Not a priority
Pennisetum setaceum
Poaceae
2012
Priority
Pistia stratiotes
Araceae
2012
Priority
Prunus serotina
Rosaceae
2004
Not a priority
Salvinia molesta
Salviniaceae
2012
Priority
Senecio inaequidens
Asteraceae
2004
PRA available
Sicyos angulatus
Cucurbitaceae
2005
PRA available
Solidago canadensis
Asteraceae
2004
Not a priority
Solidago gigantea
Asteraceae
2004
Not a priority


Selected species are then the object of a Pest Risk Analysis when the resources allow this. If the Pest Risk Analysis determines that the species represents a risk, the plant is then recommended for regulation and registered on the A1 or A2 EPPO Lists, as is the case of the following species:

Species
Family
Date of addition to the A1/A2 List
Crassula helmsii
Crassulaceae
A2 in 2006
Eichhornia crassipes
Pontederiaceae
A2 in 2008
Heracleum persicum
Apiaceae
A2 in 2009
Heracleum sosnowskyi
Apiaceae
A2 in 2009
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
Apiaceae
A2 in 2005
Ludwigia peploides & L. grandiflora
Onagraceae
A2 in 2011
Polygonum perfoliatum
Polygonaceae
A2 in 2008
Pueraria lobata
Fabaceae
A2 in 2006
Solanum elaeagnifolium
Solanaceae
A2 in 2006




Sources

EPPO Website. http://www.eppo.int/INVASIVE_PLANTS/ias_plants.htm
Brunel S, Branquart E, Fried G, van Valkenburg J, Brundu G, Starfinger U, Buholzer S, Uludag A, Joseffson M & Baker R (2010) The EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 40, 407-422