New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Bean golden mosaic virus (Begomovirus, BGYMV – EPPO A1 List) occurs in Nicaragua. Bean golden mosaic disease was first observed in Nicaragua in the early 1970s but it was not until 1990 that the disease became economically important in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Recent studies have showed that BGYMV is the predominant virus involved in this disease (detected in 95% of the tested samples). In addition, BGYMV was detected in all studied regions (Boaco, Managua, Granada, Masaya, Rivas, León, Matagalpa, Estelí). The other viruses found were Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Calopogonium golden mosaic virus (Karkashian et al., 2011). Present, widespread.
Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) is a new Crinivirus of cucurbits spreading in Asia (see EPPO RS 2011/007). CCYV is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci and has been reported from China, Japan and Taiwan causing damage to melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) crops. In 2009, it was detected for the first time in Africa, in Sudan. The disease was observed in open fields and plastic houses on melons and cucumbers in Khartoum state (Hamed et al., 2011). Present, first found in 2009 in Khartoum state.
In a review paper, Brown et al. (2011) present the currently known geographical distribution of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The presence of this invasive species has newly been reported from the following areas (in chronological order):
South America: Chile (first record in the wild in 2003), Peru (2003), Paraguay (2006), Uruguay (2009), Colombia (2010).
EPPO region: Northern Ireland (GB - 2007, no evidence of establishment), Scotland (GB - 2007), Croatia (2008), Slovenia (2008), Bulgaria (2009), Latvia (2009), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2010, no evidence of establishment), Ireland (2010, no evidence of establishment).
Africa: Lesotho (2008), Kenya (2010).
Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYVS – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected on onion (Allium cepa) crops in Kenya and Uganda in 2009 and 2010, respectively (Birithia et al., 2011). Present, no details.
Little cherry disease (EU Annexes) was reported for the first time from the Czech Republic in 2011. The disease was observed in sweet and sour cherry (Prunus avium, P. cerasus) in the East Bohemia region (Ludvikova ; Sucha, 2011). Present, found in East Bohemia.
Little cherry disease (EU Annexes) was observed for the first time in China during a survey conducted in Yunnan (2008-2009) on viruses of flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata) and sweet cherry (P. avium). LChV-2 was detected in samples collected from private orchards and community gardens in the counties of Anning, Chenggong, Fumin, Jinning, and Yiliang (Rao et al., 2011). Present, first found in 2008/2009 in several counties of Yunnan.
Disease symptoms resembling those of European stone fruit yellows were observed on apricots (Prunus armeniaca) in Northern Tunisia. Molecular analysis of symptomatic samples (P. armeniaca cv. ‘Arengi’) collected in 2008 from the Ras Jebel area confirmed the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ (EU Annexes). In 2010, ‘Ca. P. prunorum’ was also detected on almond (P. dulcis cv. ‘Abiod’) trees from the same region. Further studies are needed to determine the distribution of this pathogen in Tunisia and identify its vectors (Ben Khalifa et al., 2011; Ben Khalifa ; Fakhfakh, 2011). Present, detected on apricot and almond trees in Northern Tunisia.
Tomato spotted wilt virus (Tospovirus, TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was reported for the first time in Montenegro in 2009. TSWV was detected on Capsicum annuum plants grown under glasshouse in the vicinity of Podgorica. Further surveys are needed to determine the distribution and incidence of TSWV in Montenegro (Zindović et al., 2011). Present, first found in 2009.
Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time from Senegal. Symptoms were noticed in February 2010 on grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Mexican lime (C. aurantifolia) orchards in the area of Sébikotane (Rufisque department). Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of the bacterium. It is noted that similar symptoms had been observed in this area by farmers since 2008 (Leduc et al., 2011). Present, first detected in 2010 near Sébikotane (Rufisque department).
- Detailed records
The status of grapes (Vitis sp.) as host plants of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera, Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) has recently been reviewed in Australia. From the literature, it was found that grapes were infrequently attacked by B. tryoni and were not preferred hosts. Infestations were reported to be more common in coastal and subtropical areas or during periods of high rainfall associated with a low availability of preferred hosts. Nevertheless, B. tryoni can oviposit into grapes; the numbers of eggs hatching are low but some larvae may survive and give rise to adults. In conclusion, grapes are considered as occasional hosts of B. tryoni (Dominiak, 2011).
During surveys on tospoviruses infecting vegetable crops in India, the presence of Iris yellow spot virus (formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected in onions (Allium cepa) in the following states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh (Kunkalikar et al., 2011).
During summer 2010, a severe outbreak of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List) was observed in tomato fields in the main tomato-growing areas of Puglia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. All infested tomato plants belonged to the cultivar ‘Uno Rosso’ and derived from the same seed batch, thus suggesting that this outbreak was associated with the use of infected tomato seeds (Fanigliulo et al., 2011).
Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus – EPPO A2 List) was detected on tomatoes in Georgia (US) during varietal trials conducted in autumn 2009 and 2010 (Sundaraj et al., 2011).
In 2010, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, TICV – EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in Puglia (Italy). TICV was detected in glasshouse tomatoes in the province of Lecce (Spanó et al., 2011).
- New host plants
In Italy, the presence of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus – EPPO A2 List) has been detected in Isotoma axillaris (Campanulaceae), an ornamental perennial species. Diseased plants showed small necrotic concentric rings and necrosis of the leaves (Bellardi et al., 2011).
Bellardi MG, Cavicchi L, Pirini Casadei M, Vicchi V, Bozzano G (2001) First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting Isotoma axillaris. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.26.
Ben Khalifa M, Aldaghi M, Hacheche H, Kummert J, Marrakchi M, Fakhfakh H (2011) First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' infecting apricots in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(2), 517-519.
Ben Khalifa M, Fakhfakh H (2011) First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' infecting almonds in Tunisia. Phytoparasitica 39(4), 411-414.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Pappu HR, Muthomi JW, Narla RD (2011) First report of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Kenya and Uganda. Plant Disease 95(9), p 1195.
Brown PMJ, Thomas CE, Lombaert E, Jeffries DL, Estoup A, Lawson Handley LJ (2011) The global spread of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): distribution, dispersal and routes of invasion. BioControl 56(4), 623-641.
Dominiak BC (2011) Review of grapes Vitis sp. as an occasional host for Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Crop Protection 30(8), 958-961.
Fanigliulo A, Viggiano A, Piegari G, Crezcenzi A (2011) Serious outbreak of bacterial canker of tomato in Southern Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.31.
Hamed K, Menzel W, Dafalla G, Gadelseed AMA (2011) First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting muskmelon and cucumber in Sudan. Plant Disease 95(10), p 1321.
Karkashian J, Ramos-Reynoso ED, Maxwell DP, Ramírez P (2011) Begomoviruses associated with bean golden mosaic disease in Nicaragua. Plant Disease 95(7), 901-906.
Kunkalikar SR, Poojari S, Arun BM, Rajagopalan PA, Chen TC, Yeh SD, Naidu RA, Zehr UB, Ravi KS (2011) Importance and genetic diversity of vegetable-infecting tospoviruses in India. Phytopathology 101(3), 367-376.
Leduc A, Vernière C, Boyer C, Vital K, Pruvost O, Niang Y, Rey JY (2011) First report of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri pathotype A causing Asiatic citrus canker on grapefruit and Mexican lime in Senegal. Plant Disease 95(10), p 1311.
Ludvikova H, Sucha J (2011) First report of little cherry disease from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (P. cerasus) in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease 95(9), p 1197.
Rao WL, Li F, Zuo RJ, Li R (2011) First report of Little cherry virus 2 in flowering and sweet cherry trees in China. Plant Disease 95(11), p 1484.
Spanó R, Mascia T, Minutillo SA, Gallitelli D (2011) First report of Tomato infectious chlorosis virus from tomato in Apulia, Southern Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.64.
Sundaraj S, Srinivasan R, Webster CG, Adkins S, Riley D (2011) First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting tomato in Georgia. Plant Disease 95(7), p 881.
Zindović J, Bulajić A, Krstić B, Ciuffo M, Margaria P, Turina M (2011) First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on pepper in Montenegro. Plant Disease 95(7), p 882.