New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. Information sent by NPPOs has also been included here. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Iran, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (Tospovirus, EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in 2008 in samples of ornamental plants from the Mashhad region, Khorasan-e-razavi province (Jafarpour et al., 2010).
Citrus leprosis virus (EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time from Belize. It was detected in August 2011 in the Stann Creek district, south-east region of the country (ProMed posting, 2011). Present, first found in 2011 in the south-east.
In 2010, Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 List) was reported for the first time from Australia. The disease was detected on a small number of chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in several orchards in north-east Victoria. Eradication measures have been taken (IPPC website, 2010-09). Present, under eradication.
Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae – EPPO A1 List), a vector of citrus huanglongbing, is reported for the first time from Barbados. Surveys are being carried out to determine its distribution (IPPC website, 2011-03). Present, only in some areas.
In 2011, the presence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (EPPO A1 List) was reported for the first time in the northern part of Costa Rica (IPPC website, 2011-03). The pest status was officially declared as: Present, only in some areas.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (EPPO A1 List) occurs in Jamaica. A specific survey has revealed that huanglongbing occurs in all 14 parishes of the country (IPPC website, 2010-02). Present, in all parts of the area where host crop(s) are grown.
Squash leaf curl virus (Begomovirus - EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in 2009 in Lebanon (Abou-Jawdah et al., 2010). Present, no details.
In Burkina Faso, leaf streak symptoms were observed for the first time in October 2009 in rice fields in three regions (Haut-Bassin, Cascades and East Centre). Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (EPPO A1 List). Further surveys are needed to evaluate the distribution of this bacterium in Burkina Faso and its impact. It is also reported that X. oryzae pv. oryzicola has recently been reported from Mali (Wonni ; Ouedraogo, 2011). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
From May to July 2010 severe outbreaks of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List) were observed in 16 tomato fields (covering more than 300 ha) in the province of Viterbo, Lazio region, Italy (Lamichhane et al., 2011).
In China, Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List) has been detected for the first time in the provinces of Zhejiang and Fujian on peaches (Prunus persica) (Hu et al., 2011).
In the United Kingdom, a survey for the presence of Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO Alert List) was conducted from August 2010 to July 2011. As a result, 3 outbreaks of PepMV were detected in premises producing tomato fruit. Two of these were linked to earlier outbreaks, with re-emergence in the subsequent crops. The third outbreak is new and its cause is not yet known. In this last case, only a small proportion of the crop (approximately 2%) was affected (NPPO of the United Kingdom, 2011).
In 2010, an outbreak of Plasmopara halstedii (EU Annexes) was noticed in a few sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fields in Tiszántúl, in the south-east part of the Hungarian Great Plain. Samples were collected from this region (near Vészto and Kondoros) and the races of P. halstedii were characterized. A new race (704) was found in the tested samples. Until this finding, 5 races of P. halstedii (100, 700, 730, 710, 330) had been identified in Hungary (Kinga et al., 2011).
Bacterial spot of tomato (associated with Xanthomonas spp.) is considered as a common disease in Ohio and Michigan (US). In 2009 and 2010, outbreaks of bacterial spot characterized by significant fruit spotting occurred in at least 2;000 ha of tomatoes (grown for processing) in North-west Ohio and South-east Michigan. Losses were estimated at 7.8 million USD. In 2010, fruit and leaf samples were collected from 32 tomato fields in Ohio and Michigan. As a result, 83 bacterial isolates were identified as Xanthomonas spp. Out of these, 11 were identified as X. euvesicatoria, 8 as X. perforans, 62 as X. gardneri (2 isolates did not match any of the reference strains). This is the first time that X. gardneri is detected in Ohio and Michigan (Ma et al., 2011).
- Host plants
In Norway, during the annual survey on Phytophthora ramorum carried out in 2009, wild blueberry plants (Vaccinium myrtillus) were found to be infected by Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List). These plants had been collected from an arboretum located along the southwest coast and displayed necrotic lesions on shoot tips, branching points and around leaf abscission scars. All positive samples were found in close vicinity of infected rhododendron plants. In this location, P. ramorum had been detected in 2005 on rhododendron. This is the first time that P. ramorum is detected on V. myrtillus in Norway (Herrero et al., 2011).
Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Haidar A, Samsatly J (2010) First report in Lebanon on detection of two whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses and their molecular characterization. Petria 20(20), p 268.
Herrero ML, Toppe B, Brurberg MB (2011) First report of Phytophthora ramorum causing shoot dieback on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in Norway. Plant Disease 95(4), p 335.
Hu MJ Chen Y, Chen SN, Liu XL, Yin LF, Luo CX (2011) First report of brown rot of peach caused by Monilinia fructicola in Southeastern China. Plant Disease 95(2), p 225.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Australia. Confirmation of chestnut blight in north-east Victoria (2010-10-11). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Barbados. Occurrence of Oriental citrus psylla (2011-03-18). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Costa Rica. Huanglongbing (HLB) se detecta en Costa Rica (2011-03-29). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Jamaica. Reporting the occurrence of Huanglongbing ;(2010-02-12). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
Jafarpour B, Sabokkhiz MA, Rastegar MF (2010) First report of CSNV in Iran and occurrence of some viral diseases of ornamental plants in Mashhad region, Iran. Petria 20(2), p 273.
Kinga R, Bíró J, Kovács A, Mihalovics M, Nebli L, Piszker Z, Treitz M, Végh B (2011) [Appearance of a new sunflower downly mildew race in the south-east region of the Hungarian Great Plain]. Növényvédelem 47(7), 279-286 (in Hungarian).
Lamichhane JR, Balestra GM, Varvaro L (2011) Severe outbreak of bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on tomato in Central Italy. Plant Disease 95(2), p 221.
Ma X, Lewis Ivey ML, Miller SA (2011) First report of Xanthomona gardneri causing bacterial spot of tomato in Ohio and Michigan. Plant Disease 95(2), p 1584.
NPPO of the United Kingdom (2011-11).
ProMed posting (no. 20110929.2940) of 2011-09-30. Citrus leprosis – Belize: first report. http://www.promedmail.org
Wonni I, Ouedraogo L (2011) First report of bacterial leaf streak by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola on rice in Burkina Faso. Plant Disease 95(1) 72-73.