New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
During faunistic studies carried out on scale insects in Croatia from 2005 to 2008, the presence of Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Diaspididae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected in Croatia. The pest was found in May 2006 on imported Cycas revoluta in a glasshouse near Split (Masten Milek et al., 2008). Transient, found in 2006 in Cycas revoluta in one glasshouse.
During summer 2006, studies were carried out in Poland on the occurrence of little cherry disease (EU Annexes) in cherry orchards. Leaf samples were collected from 27 sweet and sour cherry trees (Prunus avium and P. cerasus) in different regions of Poland. Samples were taken from both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees and tested for the presence of Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) and Little cherry virus 2 (LChV-2). RT-PCR results showed that 6 of the 27 tested trees were infected by LChV-1 (5 trees, all P. avium) or by LChV-2 (1 tree, P. avium cv. Elton). The presence of LChV-2 was confirmed by graft transmission to the woody indicator P. avium cv. Canindex. This is the first report of LChV-2 in Poland (Komorowska and Cieślińska, 2008). Present, no details.
In 2007, a new bacterial disease was observed in glasshouse cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in the provinces of Cheorwon and Iksan, in the Republic of Korea. On the basis of physiological, genetic and pathological characteristics all bacterial strains isolated from diseased tomatoes were identified as Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis (EPPO A2 List). This is the first report of bacterial canker in the Republic of Korea (Myung et al., 2008). Present, first detected in 2007 on glasshouse tomatoes in the provinces of Cheorwon and Iksan.
- Detailed records
In August and September 2007, disease symptoms (stunting, deformation, interveinal chlorosis, and leaf mottling) were observed on watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus) in commercial fields in Florida (US). Bemisia tabaci biotype B was also present in the affected fields. Laboratory analysis (RT-PCR, comparison of sequences) confirmed the presence of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Crinivirus, CYSDV – EPPO A2 List). In October 2007, CYSDV was also detected in 2 fields of squash plants (Cucurbita pepo) and disease symptoms have been observed with increasing frequency throughout the Manatee and Hillsborough counties. This is the first report of CYSDV in Florida, which follows its recent emergence in other US states (Arizona, California, Texas) and in Sonora, Mexico (Polston et al., 2008).
In June 2008, the presence of Heterodera glycines (EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time in the province of Zheijiang in China, in 2 soybean growing areas of Hangzhou and Xiaoshan. Soybean plants at the Hangzhou site showed symptoms of stunting and chlorosis, whereas no above ground or root symptoms were observed at the Xiaoshan site (Zheng et al., 2009).
So far, 5 strains of Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO Alert List) have been described: European tomato (EU), Peruvian (PE), Chilean 2 (CH2), and 2 American strains US1 (including CH1) and US2. In Europe, studies have showed that field populations of PepMV belonged to EU, US2 or CH2 strains. However, in February 2007 the occurrence of US1 strains was detected for the first time in infected tomatoes from Tenerife, Islas Canarias (Spain). According to the authors, this is the first time that US1 strains are detected in Europe (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2008).
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) occurs in the state of Maranhão, Brazil (Silva et al., 2008).
In May 2008, a severe outbreak of Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (Crinivirus – EPPO A2 List) was observed in glasshouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lancelot) in Battipaglia, Campania region, Italy. The disease affected an area of approximately 1 ha and reached more than 80 % incidence (Barone et al., 2008).
- Host plants
In the Republic of Korea, the main host trees of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A1 List) are Pinus densiflora and P. thunbergii, which are also the most common pine trees in the country. Pine wilt disease was first reported in Busan city in 1998, and it is now damaging more than 7;800 ha, in more than 60 cities. In 2006, pine wilt disease was observed in a forest of P. koraiensis located in Gwangju city (Gyeonggi province). Studies (morphology, molecular and pathogenicity tests) confirmed that B. xylophilus was the cause of pine wilt disease. P. koraiensis is an endemic pine species in Korea and its distribution is limited to the northern Korean Peninsula and some locations in Russia. Although earlier inoculation studies had indicated that P. koraiensis was susceptible to B. xylophilus, this is the first record of a natural infestation in the field (Han et al., 2008).
In order to study the occurrence of viroids (other than Potato spindle tuber viroid) in Solanum jasminoides, samples were collected from symptomless plants in Belgium (3 composite samples ranging from 75 to 150 plants), Germany (3 samples ranging from 1 to 200 plants), and the Netherlands (2 samples ranging from 2 to 200 plants). Molecular tests (PCR, sequencing) showed that Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) was present in 1 sample from Germany and in 1 sample from the Netherlands. Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd - EPPO Alert List) was detected in 1 sample from Germany and 1 sample from Belgium (S. jasminoides plants had originally been imported from Israel). According to the authors this is the first time that both CEVd and TASVd are detected in S. jasminoides (Verhoeven et al., 2008).
Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 List) has been detected for the first time on Nerium oleander in Costa Rica. Symptoms of oleander leaf scorch have been observed in different localities in the Central Valley (Montero-Astúa et al., 2008).
Alfaro-Fernández A, Cebrián MC, Córdoba-Sellés C, Herrera-Vásquez JA, Jordá C (2008) First report of the US1 strain of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain. Plant Disease 92(11), p 1590.
Barone M, Senatore M, Zoina A, Alioto D (2008) A severe outbreak of Tomato infectious chlorosis virus in tomato crops in Campania, Southern Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 90(3), 585-589.
Han H, Chung YJ, Shin SC (2008) First report of pine wilt disease on Pinus koraiensis in Korea. Plant Disease 92(8), p 1251.
Komorowska B, Cieślińska M (2008) First report of Little cherry virus 2 from sweet cherry in Poland. Plant Disease 92(9), p 1366.
Masten Milek T, Šimala M, Novak A (2008) Species of genus Aulacaspis Cockerell, 1836 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Croatia, with emphasis on Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, 1977. Entomologia Croatica, 12(1), 55-64.
Montero-Astúa, Saborío G, Chacón-Díaz C, Villalobos W, Rodríguez CM, Moreira L, Rivera C (2008) First report of Xylella fastidiosa in Nerium oleander in Costa Rica. Plant Disease 92(8), p 1249.
Myung IS, Kim DG, An SH, Lee YK, Kim WG (2008) First report of bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Korea. Plant Disease 92(10), p 1472.
Polston JE, Hladky LL, Akad F, Wintermantel WM (2008) First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in cucurbits in Florida. Plant Disease 92(8), p 1251.
Silva TC, Lemos RNS, Moreira AA, Araujo JRG, Medeiros FR, Castellani MA (2008) Parasitoids associated with Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 34(4), 493-500.
Verhoeven JTJ, Jensen CCC, Roenhorst JW (2008) First report of Solanum jasminoides infected by Citrus exocortis viroid in Germany and the Netherlands and Tomato apical stunt viroid in Belgium and Germany. Plant Disease 92(6), p 973.
Zheng J, Zhang Y, Li X, Zhao L, Chen S (2009) First report of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, on soybean in Zheijiang, Eastern China. Plant Disease 93(3), p 319.