New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. Information sent by NPPOs has also been included here. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In 2006, the presence of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus, INSV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in symptomatic Phalaenopsis plants from the Chinese province of Yunnan (Cheng et al., 2010). Until now, the EPPO Secretariat had no data about the presence of INSV in China. Present, found in Yunnan.
During surveys carried out from 2003 to 2008 to evaluate the presence of phytoplasmas in fruit and vegetable crops in Azerbaijan, Stolbur phytoplasma (EPPO A2 List), ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ (EPPO A2 List) and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ were detected for the first time in this country (Balakishiyeva et al., 2010). Present, no details.
Pepino mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PepMV – EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Turkey. In spring 2008 and 2009, unusual symptoms were observed on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Dalaman (Mugla province, Aegean region). Laboratory studies (DAS-ELISA, inoculation of herbaceous indicators) confirmed the presence of PepMV in diseased plants (Özdemir, 2010). Present, detected on glasshouse tomatoes in Muğla province (Aegean region).
Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Niger and Tanzania (Boubou et al., 2011). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
In Italy, Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert List) was detected in a melon crop (Cucumis melo) in the municipality of San Nicolò d’Arcidano (province of Oristano) in Sardegna. The infected crop was immediately destroyed (NPPO of Italy, 2011-02).
The NPPO of Italy reported the presence of Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae – EPPO A2 list) in the Lazio region. The pest was found in 3 palm trees (Trachycarpus fortunei) at the botanical garden of the University of Tuscia in Viterbo. All infested plants were destroyed. P. archon was also found in Basilicata region. It was detected on a Phoenix dactylifera plant in the municipality of Nova Siri (province of Matera). Phytosanitary measures were taken to contain the pest (NPPO of Italy, 2010-12 and 2011-03).
In China, the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was first found in August 2008 in Guangzhou city on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Field surveys were carried out from 2008 to 2010 and showed that P. solenopsis occurs in the following 8 provinces: Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan Yunnan, and Zhejiang. In Southern China, its distribution is still scattered. P. solenopsis has mainly been found on hibiscus, but outbreaks on cotton crops have been reported in Jiangxi and Hunan (Zhang et al., 2010).
In Italy, the distribution of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A2 List) remained limited to Sicilia until the 1990s. It then started to spread to central and southern regions of the mainland causing severe outbreaks on many crops (mainly vegetables). In September-October 2010, 7 male specimens of S. littoralis were caught in pheromone traps located in a field (leaf beet and spinach) in Emilia-Romagna (Province of Cesena). Because the pest was found at the end of the growing season and no specific damage was reported in this field, no phytosanitary measures were taken. The regional PPO considered that the pest status of S. littoralis in Emilia-Romagna can be defined as follows: Transient, under surveillance: few males captured in pheromone traps, in a single field in Romagna.
In Italy, phytoplasmas belonging to the Stolbur group were detected in symptomatic samples of Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae) in the Herb Garden of the municipality of Casola Valsenio (province of Ravenna), Emilia-Romagna region (NPPO of Italy, 2010-12).
In the United Kingdom, official surveys conducted in 3 watercourses in Cambridgeshire where Ralstonia solanacearum (EPPO A2 List) had previously been found (Back river, Stanground Lode and Pig Water) showed that the bacterium is no longer present. This is the result of an eradication programme to remove Solanum dulcamara plants. As the bacterium has not been found for two consecutive years, irrigation restrictions have been lifted in these 3 watercourses (NPPO of the UK, 2011).
Studies have showed that Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae - EPPO A1 List) can acquire ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’ (EPPO A1 List) from Murraya paniculata and transmit it to sweet orange (Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Valencia’) plants (Gasparoto et al., 2010).
Balakishiyeva G, Danet JL, Qurbanov M, Mamedov A, Kheyr-Pour A, Foissac X (2010) First report of phytoplasma infections in several temperature fruit trees and vegetables. Journal of Plant Pathology 92(4, Suppl.), S4.105.
Boubou A, Migeon A, Roderick GK, Navajas M (2011) Recent emergence and worldwide spread of the red tomato spider mite, Tetranychus evansi: genetic variation and multiple cryptic invasions. Biological Invasions 13(1), 81-92.
Cheng XF, Dong JH, Fang Q, Ding M, McBeath JH, Zhang ZK (2010) Detection of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting Phalaenopsis in Yunnan. Journal of Plant Pathology 92, 543-546.
Gasparoto MCG, Bassanezi RB, Amorim L, Montesino LH, Lourenço SA, Wulff NA, Teixeira DC, Mariano AG, Martins EC, Leite APR, Bergamin Filho A (2010) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’ transmission from Murraya paniculata to sweet orange by Diaphorina citri. Journal of Plant Pathology 92(2), p 546.
NPPO of Italy (2010-12, 2011-02, 2011-03, 2011-04).
NPPO of the United Kingdom (2011-06).
Özdemir S (2010) First report of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology 92(4, Suppl.), S4.107.
Zhang R, Wang Y, Li Y (2010) Discovery of a new invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China. Abstract of a paper presented at the Potential Invasive Pests Workshop (Miami, US, 2010-10-10/14), p 71