First reports of Monilia polystroma in Hungary and the Czech Republic
Monilia polystroma (anamorph of an unknown teleomorph) was described as a new species in 2002 from samples of Malus pumila collected from Japan (Leeuwen et al., 2002). The host range of M. polystroma and other Monilinia species are similar, including Malus, Pyrus, Cydonia and Prunus. In Asia, M. polystroma was also reported from China (Zhu and Guo, 2010). It was detected on mummified plums (Prunus aitianli) which had been collected in August 2008 from one orchard in Mudanjiang city (Heilongjiang).
In Europe, the presence of M. polystroma was reported for the first time from Hungary in 2009 (Petroczy and Palkovics, 2009). In April 2006, unusual symptoms were observed on apple trees (Malus domestica cv. ‘Ashton Bitter’) in Újfehértó (Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg county). Brownish lesions were present on leaf petioles and lamina, as well as on small fruits and pedicels. Infected areas were covered with yellowish exogenous stromata. The fungus was identified by classical and molecular methods as M. polystroma. It is noted that M. polystroma did not seem to present a significant impact on fruit production because it was only found in 2006, and was sporadic within the orchard concerned.
The situation of Monilia polystroma in Hungary can be described as: Present, found once in 2006 in one apple orchard (Újfehértó).
In 2011, the NPPO of the Czech Republic reported the first occurrence of M. polystroma on its territory. The first findings resulted from an official survey for the presence of Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 list). In August and September 2010, fruit samples were collected from apple and peach trees (M. domestica, Prunus persica) growing in orchards in 2 localities (10 km apart). The sampled fruits showed typical symptoms of brown rot (Monilinia spp.). Laboratory tests (PCR, RFLP) confirmed the presence of M. polystroma. The source of this infection is unknown. In both infected localities, delimiting surveys are being conducted. No eradication measures were taken but specific pest management options were recommended to growers. It is also acknowledged that data is generally lacking on the distribution and biology of M. polystroma and that, for the moment, it is difficult to evaluate its possible impact on European fruit crops.
The pest status of Monilia polystroma in the Czech Republic is officially declared as: Present, found in two localities, under surveillance.
NPPO of the Czech Republic (2011-04).
Leeuwen GCM, van Baayen RP, Holb IJ, Jeger MJ (2002) Distinction of the Asiatic brown rot fungus Monilia polystroma sp. nov. from M. fructigena. Mycological Research 106(4), 444-451.
Petroczy M, Palkovics L (2009) First report of Monilia polystroma on apple in Hungary. European Journal of Plant Pathology 125(2), 343-347.
Zhu XQ, Guo LY (2010) First report of brown rot on plum caused by Monilia polystroma in China. Plant Disease 94(4), 478.