New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New geographical records
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 list) was isolated in 2002 from 2 asymptomatic lots of tomato seeds, which had been produced on Java. This is the first report of bacterial canker of tomato in Indonesia (Anwar et al., 2004). Present, first found in 2002 in Java.
Black sigatoka of banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is reported for the first time from the Bahamas. The disease was observed in February 2004 on two isolated sites on Grand Bahama island (Ploetz, 2004). Present, first found in 2003 on Grand Bahama island.
In Uruguay, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae – EPPO A2 list) is considered as a pest of lettuce, tomato, potato; and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 list) as a pest of strawberry (JUNAGRA website). Present, no details.
The presence of Unaspis citri (Homoptera: Diaspididae – EPPO A1 list) is recorded in Egypt and Syria, as well as in Japan (Danzig & Pellizzari, 1998). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
In Argentina, Ovruski et al. (2003) stated that Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 list) is mainly restricted to the northwestern provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca, and the northeastern provinces of Missiones, Corrientes and Entre Ríos.
Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A1 list) occurs in Minnesota (US), and many growers consider it as a pest of apples (Fadamiro, 2004)
Field surveys were carried out in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon to assess the phytosanitary status of potato crops. Results showed that Potato virus Y was the most prevalent virus (found in 98.8% of the virus-infected samples), followed by Potato virus A, Potato virus X and Potato leafroll virus. The presence of PVYntn was also detected. The fungi Thanatephorus cucumeris, Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and the bacterium Erwinia carotovora, were the main pathogens found. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and Ralstonia solanacearum (both on the EPPO A2 list) were not detected (Choueiri et al., 2004).
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae – EPPO A2 list) was first recorded in Yunnan Province (CN) in 1993. Since then, the pest has spread to more than 10 Provinces of China, ranging from southern subtropical areas to northern temperate regions, including at least: Beijing, Hubei, Neimenggu, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan (Chen & Kang, 2004).
In Mexico, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A1 list) was first detected in 1999 in Mexicali, Baja California. So far, the pest remained confined to a urban area adjacent to the border strip with USA, as a result of strict phytosanitary measures. But in February 2004, an outbreak of Maconellicoccus hirsutus was confirmed in teak (Tectona grandis) in the municipality of Bahia de Banderas, State of Nayarit. Teak is an introduced forest species in this state. A survey showed that the pest is present in the areas of El Porvenir, San Vicente, Valle de Banderas, San Jose, San Juan de Abajo and Colomo (total infested surface of 63 ha). The origin of the outbreak appears to be the introduction of infested ornamental plant products in tourist’s luggage (NAPPO Pest Alert, 2004).
In USA, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A1 list) was first discovered in Florida in June 2002. In February 2004, its presence was also detected on Hibiscus at four residences in the southeast of Pinellas County (Florida Pest Alert, 2004).
In China, Phellinus weirii (EPPO A1 list) was found in 2003, in natural forests of the Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province. The fungus was found on Sabina przewalskii (syn. Juniperus przewalskii) showing slow growth, thin crowns, chlorotic foliage, cambial necrosis and wood decay (Dai, 2004).
In recent year, symptoms resembling those of Plum pox potyvirus (PPV - EPPO A2 list) have repeatedly been observed in plum orchards located in the vicinity of Berlin, Germany. In 2000, leaf samples were collected from four plum orchards and tested (serological and molecular assays). PPV was detected in 52% of all tested symptomatic samples (13 out of 25). Only PPV-D was detected. Further studies will be done on a larger number of samples for an accurate evaluation of the occurrence of the different strains of PPV (Rebenstorf & Büttner, 2004).
- New host plants
Studies showed that the leguminous weed, Macroptilium lathyroides, can be a host plant for Bean golden yellow mosaic begomovirus (EPPO A1 list; Bracero et al., 2003).
In June 2003, Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 list) was recorded for the first time on Pyracantha coccinea in Bulgaria, in the region of Plovdiv (Bobev et al., 2004).
Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus (EPPO A2 list) was detected in Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus in Georgia, US (Martínez-Ochoa et al., 2004).
In Cuba, Tomato yellow leaf curl begomovirus (EPPO A2 list) was found infecting squash (Cucurbita pepo). Affected plants showed leaf curling and light yellowing (Martinez Zubiaur et al., 2004).
In Spain, several weeds were found naturally infected by Tomato chlorosis (ToCV) and Tomato infectious chlorosis criniviruses (TICV - both on the EPPO Alert List). ToCV was detected in Solanum nigrum, and TICV was detected in Chenopodium album and C. murale (Font, et al., 2004).
Anwar, A.; van der Zouwen, P.S.; Ilyas, S.; van der Wolf, J.M. (2004) Bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia. Plant Disease, 88(6), p 680.
Bobev, S.G.; Baeyen, S.; Crepel, C.; Maes, M. (2004) First report of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on Pyracantha coccinea in Bulgaria. Plant Disease, 88(4), p 427.
Bracero, V.; Rivera, L.I.; Beaver, J.S. (2003) DNA analysis confirms Macroptilium lathyroides as alternative host of Bean golden yellow mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 87(9), 1022-1025.
Chen, B.; Kang, L. (2004) Variation in cold hardiness of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) along latitudinal gradients. Environmental Entomology, 33(2), 155-164.
Choueiri, E.; El-Zammar, S.; Jreijiri, F.; Mnayer, D.; Massaad, R.; Saad, A. T.; Hanna, L.; Varveri, C. (2004) Phytosanitary status of potato in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34(1), 117-212.
Dai, Y.C. (2004) First report of laminated root rot on Sabina przewalskii caused by Phellinus weirii sensu stricto in China. Plant Disease, 88(5), p 573.
Danzig E.M., Pellizzari G. (1998) Diaspididae. In: Catalogue of Palearctic Coccoidea (F. Kozár Editor), Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest: 172-370.
Fadamiro, H.Y. (2004) Pest phenology and evaluation of traps and pheromone lures for monitoring flight activity of obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Minnesota apple orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(2), 530-538.
Font, I.M.; Juárez, M.; Martínez, O.; Jordá, C.; (2004) Current status and newly discovered hosts of Tomato infectious chlorosis virus and Tomato chlorosis virus in Spain. Plant Disease, 88(1), p 82.
Martínez-Ochoa, N.; Mullis, S.W.; Csinos, A.S.; Webster, T.M. (2004) First report of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) in Georgia naturally infected with Impatiens necrotic spot virus. Plant Disease, 88(7), p 771.
Martinez Zubiaur, Y.; Fonseca, D.; Quiñones, M.; Palenzuela, I. (2004) Presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infecting squash (Cucurbita pepo) in Cuba. Plant Disease, 88(5), p 572.
Ovruski, S.; Schliserman, P.; Aluja, M. (2003) Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Northwestern Argentina. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(4), 1108-1118.
Ploetz, R.C. (2004) First report of Black Sigatoka of banana caused by Mycospherella fijiensis on Grand Bahama Island. Plant Disease, 88(7), p 772.
Rebenstorf, K.; Büttner, C. (2004) [A short investigation of the distribution of Sharka virus in plum orchards in the periurban area of Berlin.]. Gesunde Pflanzen, 56(1), 27-31.
Junta Nacional de la Granja (JUNAGRA), Ministerio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca (MGAP) – Problemas Sanitarios. Principales problemas sanitarios de algunas hortalizas del Uruguay. http://www.mgap.gub.uy/Junagra/ElSector/sanidad.htm
NAPPO Pest Alert. News Stories (2004-03-08). Detection of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green), in the municipality of Bahia de Banderas in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. http://www.pestalert.org
University of Florida Pest Alert. Pink hibiscus mealybug found on Florida's west coast (2004-02-19). http://extlab7.entnem.ufl.edu/PestAlert/