New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Fusarium foetens (EPPO A2 List) was recorded for the first time on Begonia x hiemalis in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2008 (Anon., 2008a). Present, found in 2008 in North Island (Auckland).
Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Flatidae) was found for the first time in Bulgaria in 2004. It was observed in the region of Plovdiv on Thuja occidentalis (Tranchev et al., 2007). Present, first found in 2004.
Phoracantha recurva (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in France in 2003. The pest was observed on large cut-branches of Eucalyptus in a residential area of Nice, Alpes-Maritimes (Miquel, 2008). Present, first found in 2003, in southern France (Nice, Alpes-Maritimes).
During studies carried out in Argentina on noctuid pests of soybean crops, the presence of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) was noted in the province of Tucumán, in 2005/2006. The EPPO Secretariat previously had no data on the occurrence of this pest in Argentina (Valverde et al., 2008). Present (at least in the province of Tucumán).
Tilletia controversa (formerly EPPO A2 List) was recorded for the first time in August 2006, in Latvia. It was observed on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) ears and in grain samples collected from commercial fields in different geographical regions in Latvia (Priekule, 2007). Present, first found in 2006 in different regions.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is the causal agent of a new serious banana wilt in Eastern Africa (EPPO RS 2003/171, 2005/119, 2007/210). It was first reported in Ethiopia on Enset ventricosum in 1968. It remained of low economic importance until 2001 when outbreaks occurred in central Uganda on banana (Musa spp.). Further outbreaks were then reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo (eastern part), Rwanda, and Tanzania (Lake Victoria region). More recently, its presence was also reported from Western Kenya and Burundi. Finally, data obtained from comparative studies with other Xanthomonas species (molecular characterization and pathogenicity tests) suggested that X. campestris pv. musacearum could be reclassified as Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Aritua et al., 2008).
- Detailed records
In Israel, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in 1963 and has appeared sporadically since then. A severe epidemic occurred in 2000 in the southern part of the country, which is the main area for the production of tomatoes under protected conditions. Since 2000, the disease has been found in most glasshouses in this area, including the Gaza Strip, and it has also spread to tomato fields in northern locations (Kleitman et al., 2008).
Glomerella acutata (anamorph C. acutatum – EU Annexes) was first reported in Bulgaria in 2002. Since 2004, disease outbreaks have been observed in strawberry production fields. Surveys carried out in 2004 and 2005, indicated that the disease was present in 7 of the 8 visited districts and almost half of the strawberry fields were infected. In some areas, disease incidence reached more 90% (Jelev et al., 2008).
In the USA, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A1 List) was reported for the first time in Georgia in November 2008. The pest was discovered in a private garden near Atlanta (Forsyth County) on hibiscus plants. It is noted that in the USA, M. hirsutus is now well established in Florida, Louisiana and Texas (the EPPO Secretariat previously had no data on its presence in Texas). For the moment, it is not known whether M. hirsutus will be able to survive winters in Georgia (Plant Health Progress, 2008).
In France, Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, formerly EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in Corse in 1984 (EPPO RS 502/07 of 1989). The pest is now present in mainland France where it has been reported in several locations of Alpes-Maritimes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Pyrénées-Orientales and Var (Brustel et al., 2002).
In Turkey, the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ (associated with apple proliferation, EPPO A2 List) was confirmed by laboratory analysis on samples collected from apple orchards in Adana (Mediterranean region) and Niğde (Central Anatolia). Further surveys will be carried out in Turkey to better understand the situation of the pathogen and its insect vectors in other important apple-growing regions of Turkey (Sertkaya et al., 2008).
In New Zealand, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus (both Tospovirus, EPPO A2 List) were found in 2008 near Auckland, North Island, on Hoya plants (Anon., 2008b).
- Host plants
Physalis ixocarpa and P. peruviana are reported for the first time as natural host plants of Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List). Plants of P. ixocarpa showing abnormal interveinal yellowing and plants of P. peruviana showing mild yellowing were collected in the vicinity of tomato crops in Portugal. These plants were found to be infected by ToCV and the susceptibility of these host plants was confirmed by transmission tests (Trenado et al., 2007).
Studies were carried out in Spain to determine which species of weeds could act as reservoirs for Tomato torrado virus (ToTV). 72 samples of common weeds were tested for the presence of ToTV (molecular hybridization, RT-PCR). The virus was detected in 22 samples of weed species belonging to Amaranthaceae (Amaranthus sp.), Caryophyllaceae (Spergularia sp.), Chenopodiaceae (Atriplex sp., Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodium sp., Halogetum sativus), Brassicaceae (Senebiera didyma), Malvaceae (Malva sp.), Polygonaceae (Polygonum sp.), and Solanaceae (Nicotiana glauca, Solanum nigrum) (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2008).
Alfaro-Fernández A, Córdoba-Sellés MC, Cebrían MC, Herrera-Vásquez JA, Sánchez-Navarro JA, Juárez M, Espino A, Martín R, Jordá C (2008) First report of Tomato torrado virus on weed hosts in Spain. Plant Disease 92(5), p 831.
Anonymous (2008a) Plant kingdom records. MAF New Zealand, Biosecurity no. 86, p 22.
Anonymous (2008b) Plant kingdom records. MAF New Zealand, Biosecurity no. 85, p 31.
Aritua V, Parkinson N, Thwaites R, Heeney JV, Jones DR, Tushemereirwe W, Crozier J, Reeder R, Stead DE, Smith J (2008) Characterization of the Xanthomonas sp. causing wilt of enset and banana and its proposed reclassification as a strain of X. vasicola. Plant Pathology 57(1), 170-177.
Brustel H, Berger P, Cocquempot C (2002) Catalogue des Vesperidae et des Cerambycidae de la faune de France (Coleoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (n.s.) 38(4), 443-461.
Jelev ZJ, Bobev SG, Minz D, Maymon M, Freeman S (2008) Characterization of Colletotrichum species causing strawberry anthracnose in Bulgaria. Journal of Phytopathology 156(11-12), 668-677.
Kleitman F, Barash I, Burger A, Iraki N, Falah Y, Sessa G, Weinthal D, Chalupowicz L, Gartemann KH, Eichenlaub R, Manulis-Sasson S (2008) Characterization of a Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis population in Israel. European Journal of Plant Pathology 121(4), 463-475.
Miquel ME (2008) The presence of Phoracantha recurva (Newman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in France and how to differentiate it from P. semipunctata. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 21, 193-194.
Plant Health Progress of 2008-12-12. Pink hibiscus mealybug found in North Georgia. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/news/2008/PHMealybug
Priekule I (2007) First report of dwarf bunt caused by Tilletia controversa in Latvia. Plant Pathology 56(6), p 1042.
Sertkaya G, Martini M, Osler R (2008) First report of Candidatus Phytoplasma mali in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology 90(1), p 143.
Trenado HP, Fortes IM, Louro D, Navas-Castillo JN (2007) Physalis ixocarpa and P. peruviana, new natural hosts of Tomato chlorosis virus. European Journal of Plant Pathology 118(2), 193-196.
Trenchev G, Ivanova I, Nicolov P, Trencheva K (2007) [Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Homoptera: Flatidae) – A species new to the Bulgarian fauna]. Plant Science 44(3), 195-198 (in Bulgarian).
Valverde L, Romero Sueldo M, Colomo MV, Berta C, Dode M (2008) [Lepidoptera Noctuidae pests in the soybean crops in the province of Tucumán, Argentina]. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal – Plagas 34(3), 377-381 (in Spanish).