Studies on antibiotic resistance in Erwinia amylovora in Israel
Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 list) was first found in Israel in 1985. In 1986, streptomycin was registered as the only bactericide to be used against fireblight and was widely applied by pear growers during bloom. In 1991 the first resistant strains were detected. These were collected from Sharon, Galilee and Golan Heights (see also EPPO RS 96/147). In 1997, streptomycin was withdrawn and replaced by oxolinic acid. Studies were done to monitor any appearance of resistance to oxolinic acid and to determine how long streptomycin-resistant strains could persist in orchards. Surveys were done from 1998 to 2001 in pear, apple and quince orchards. They revealed a decrease in the frequency of locations with streptomycin-resistant strains: 57% in 1998 to 15 % in 2001 (corresponding to 5 locations within 2 restricted areas in western Galilee and Golan Heights). In 1999, strains resistant to oxolinic acid were isolated for the first time from two pear orchards in the northern part. Again in 2000/2001, oxolic acid-resistant strains were detected in several orchards in two restricted areas in northern Galilee.
Manulis, S.; Kleitman, F.; Shtienberg, D.; Shwartz, H.; Oppenheim, D.; Zilberstaine, M.; Shabi, E. (2003) Changes in the sensitivity of Erwinia amylovora populations to streptomycin and oxolinic acid in Israel.
Plant Disease, 87(6), 650-654.