Exotic forestry pests recently reported from the USA
- Scolytus schevyrewi, an Asian bark beetle of elms
In May 2003, specimens of Scolytus schevyrewi (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were trapped in Colorado and Utah. Later, it was reported from many other states. S. schevyrewi is thought to originate from China where it colonizes elms (Ulmus spp.) and other hardwood species. As there are indications that this bark beetle could be a vector of Dutch elm disease, the EPPO Secretariat decided to add it to the EPPO Alert List (see EPPO RS 2005/181).
- Ambrosia beetles from Asia
Many ambrosia bark beetles of Asian origin have recently been found in USA. It is estimated that at least 12 species have become established since 1990, and only a few of them are presented below. As most ambrosia bark beetles attack dead or dying woody plants, they are not considered as posing immediate and major risks. All are suspected to have been introduced in solid wood packing material.
- Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was discovered in Florida in 2002 and California in 2003 on Delonix regia. This ambrosia bark beetle is of Asian origin (ranging from Japan South to Indonesia and West to India) and it has been introduced into Australia, several Pacific islands, Madagascar and other Indian Ocean islands, Hawaii and Panama. In its native range, E. fornicatus is highly polyphagous and reported as pest of tea (Camellia sinensis).
- Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first found in Georgia in 2002. It was then observed in South Carolina on dying Persea borbonia. X. glabratus is of Asian origin (reported in India, Japan, Myanmar, Taiwan).
- In 2005, 22 specimens of Xyleborus seriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were trapped in a Massachussets forest. This ambrosia bark beetle is also of Asian origin (reported in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Russia). It has many hardwood hosts, but also attacks several conifers such as Pinus, Thuja, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, and Larix.
- Xyleborus similis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was trapped in 2002 near Houston, Texas, where it is now thought to be established. This ambrosia bark beetle is of Asian origin (reported in China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam). It has been introduced into many countries of Africa and Oceania. X. similis has been recorded on many hardwood species and also on Pinus.
- Xylosandrus mutilatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was trapped near Lake Placid and in Tallahassee in Florida, and also in Mississippi. This ambrosia bark beetle is of Asian origin (ranging from Japan South to Papua New Guinea and West to India). It is reported on many woody hosts in Asia. In the USA, its host plants remain unknown for the moment.
- Forestry pests which are known to occur in Europe
- Batrachedra pinicolella (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae), a needle miner of spruce was discovered for the first time in the USA in 3 counties of Connecticut (Litchfield, New Haven, Tolland). B. pinicolella occurs in many European countries as well as in eastern Russia. It mainly attacks Picea but also Abies and on rare occasions Pinus. Larvae mine conifer needles causing needle loss and discoloration. In Europe, it is not a major pest.
- In the USA, Hylurgops palliatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was caught for the first time in 2001, near Erie, Pennsylvania. H. palliatus is a pest of Picea abies, but it also occurs on other conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus cembra, Pinus strobus, Pinus nigra, Larix europea and Abies pectinata). It is distributed in coniferous and mixed forests throughout the whole palaearctic region from England to Sakhalin and Japan. It is common in northern and central Europe, and Siberia.
- Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a pine bark beetle, was discovered at a Christmas tree plantation in Rochester, New York state in November 2000. This pest had repeatedly been intercepted in association with wood packing material from Europe and single specimens had already been caught in 1994 and 1995 near Rochester. H. ligniperda usually attacks weakened pine trees. As it is an efficient vector of some Leptographium species, it is feared that it could also transmit L. wageneri which occurs in western USA.
- Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) was caught in a forest near Fulton, New York in February 2005. Further findings were made in 2005 in New York state, and also at 4 locations in southern Ontario (Canada). In 2002, it had already been found in Bloomington, Indiana and detected at numerous ports of entry. Sirex noctilio is endemic to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa and has successfully established in South Africa, South America, Australia and New Zealand. In its native range, it is considered as a secondary pest of conifers.
- Interceptions on ‘unusual’ commodities
Living insects are increasingly being intercepted in USA on commodities such as bamboo garden stakes, Christmas trees and baskets, which are not covered by the solid wood packing material regulations. It is considered that these ‘unusual’ commodities could constitute pathways for the introduction of forestry pests in particular. The following examples have raised concerns in USA.
- Anoplophora chinensis was intercepted in Georgia on a Lagerstroemia bonsai from China in 1999; and A. chinensis was found in an Acer bonsai from Asia (unknown origin) in Wisconsin.
- Callidiellum villosulum and C. rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were both found in the trunks (made with wood) of artificial Christmas trees from China, in 1999.
- Grammographus notabilis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was intercepted in Ohio from a plastic-wrapped basket made in China, in 2000.
- Several species of cerambycids were intercepted (larvae or emerging adults) on dried bamboo canes from Asia: Chlorophorus annularis, Stromatium barbatum, Purpucerinus spectabilis, P. temminckii and Clytini sp. In addition to cerambycids, moth larvae (Oecophoridae) were found in Chinese bamboo canes. It can be noted that C. annularis has also been intercepted in Europe (at least twice by the United Kingdom on bamboo canes imported from China, see EPPO RS 2003/124 and 2004/018).
- Chlorophorus strobilicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was intercepted in pine cones from India at different stores throughout the USA in a number of different products, including potpourri mixes and holiday decorations.
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System
Official pest report (2003-07-15). Detection of Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov in Colorado and Utah. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=81&keyword=scolytus
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service. Pest Alert. Another Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Scolytinae: Curculionidae) by MC Thomas. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/x.glabratus.html
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service. Pest Alert. Two Asian ambrosia beetles recently established in Florida (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) by MC Thomas. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/twonewxyleborines.html
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System.
New Pest Stories (2005-08-05). Xyleborus seriatus, an ambrosia beetle, found for the first time in North America. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchNewsStory.cfm?nid=350
Exotic forest pest information system for North America. Pest Reports - Xyleborus similis by R. Rabaglia (2003). http://spfnic.fs.fed.us/exfor
Other forest pests
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System.
Official pest report (2005-03-03) Detection of the European wood wasp, Sirex noctilio (Fabricius) in New York. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=140&keyword=sirex
Official pest report (2005-09-08) Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) (sirex woodwasp) in Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oswego Counties in New York. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=161&keyword=sirex
Official pest report (2005-12-15) Sirex Wood Wasp (Sirex noctilio) – Confirmation in Southeastern Ontario. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=183&keyword=sirex
New Pest Stories (2005-05-13). First report of a spruce needleminer, Batrachedra pinicolella, in North America. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchNewsStory.cfm?nid=343
Archived Pest Alerts. Hylurgus ligniperda. An infestation of a bark beetle species capable of vectoring pathogenic fungi was recently found in North America.
US Forest Service - Rapid Detection and Response Program. http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/briefs/Rapid_dect_response_prg.htm
NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert System.
Archived pest alerts. Multiple longhorned beetles. Novel pathways for exotic longhorned beetles are leading to increasing detections. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchPestAlert.cfm?rid=27
Archived pest alerts. Beetles in Dried Bamboo. Bamboo garden stakes from Asia have been found to be infested with longhorned beetles. http://www.pestalert.org/viewArchPestAlert.cfm?rid=33
Archived pest alerts. Scented pine cones infested with Cerambycid larvae