Cyperus esculentus, a new weed in Hungary
Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae – EPPO list of invasive alien plants) is considered invasive and transformer in Hungary. It is a rhizomatous plant originating from the subtropical areas of North-Africa. Five Cyperus esculentus varieties are known in the world. One of them is a cultivated plant (C. e. var. sativus or C. e. cv. Chufa), the four others are weeds (C. e. var. esculentus, C. e. var. macrostachyus, C. e. var. heermannii, C. e. var. leptostachyus). In Europe, C. esculentus var. leptostachyus is the most common variety. The species has a high economic impact and is characterised by high vegetative propagation and wide genetic variability in Hungary. Two pathways of introduction are suspected: imports of Gladiolus from the Netherlands and of infested seeds of maize grown in monoculture. The first occurrence of C. esculentus var. leptostachyus was reported in Hungary in 1993, on 1 hectare of maize. Today, it occurs and causes damage in vegetables, maize and intensive apple orchards in 4 regions and around 13 localities. The largest infested area is 2500-3000 hectares.
Dancza I, Pathy Hoffmann Z, Doma C (2004) Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge) – a new weed in Hungary. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection XIX, 223-229.